Feb_7_Nutrition_and_Digestion_Continued - >nitrogenous...

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Nutrition and Digestion Continued The Human Oral Cavity o When you swallow, the tongue pushes the bolus of food into the pharynx, triggering the swallowing reflx o The esophageal sphincter relaxes and allows the bolus to enter the esophagus. o At the same time, the larynx moves upward and tips the epiglottis (a flap of cartilage and fibrous connective tissues down over the opening of the larynx o The epiglottis prevents food from passing into the trachea o After the bolus enters the esophagus, the larynx moves back downward, the epiglottis tips up again, and the breathing passage re-opens The stomach secretes pepsin to help protect the cells of the gastric gland. Mucus protects the stomach lining from pepsin acid. Digestion is completed in the small intestine o Carbohydrates- Starch->pancreatic amylase->maltose->maltase, sucrose, lactase- >monosaccharide o Proteins-polypeptide->trypsin, chymotrypsin->smaller polypptide->dipeptidase- >amino acids o Nucleic acids-DNA and RNA->nuclease->nucleotides->other enzymes-
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Unformatted text preview: >nitrogenous bases, sugars, phospates o Fats-fat globules->bile salts->fat droplets->lipase->fatty acids, glycerol • Liver Functions o Remove excess glucose from the blood and convert it to glycogen o Regulates metabolism o Converts toxins into inactive products excreted through urine o Produces bile which aids in the digestion of fats o Large intestine (colon) functions Stores feces • Three needs of a healthy diet o Fuel to power body activities o Organic molecules to build the animals own molecules o Essential nutrients • The Five Main Vertebrate Groups o Chordata Dorsal Hollow nerve cord Motochord Pharyngeal slits Post anal tail o Invertebrate Chordates transition into vertebrates. They developed head and skull->backbone-> bone and cartilage-> jaw o Mammal Hierarchy: Chordate, craniate, vertebrate, jawed vertebrate, tetrapods, ammiotes...
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Feb_7_Nutrition_and_Digestion_Continued - >nitrogenous...

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