Gross Anatomy Lecture Notes - Larynx and Middle Ear

Gross Anatomy Lecture Notes - Larynx and Middle Ear -...

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D503/D850 Gross Anatomy Lecture Notes 11/28/11 – Larynx and Middle Ear Head 9 - The larynx is in the upper, anterior region of cervical visceral compartment. - Three functions: protection of airway, phonation (sound production), and respiration o The most important is protection of the airway. It adducts the true vocal cords keeping stuff from getting into the trachea and lungs. o Phonation occurs when pressurized air from the lungs is directed across adducted vocal cords causing them to vibrate. Column of vibrating air is subsequently modified by pharyngeal wall, soft palate, tongue, lips, and teeth. Produces intelligible speech. o Respiration is movement of air across the vocal cords to let air enter and leave lungs. Surface anatomy of the neck - Readily palpable o Thyroid cartilage Notch at the superior midline called the thyroid notch. Just below this is the laryngeal prominence (Adam’s apple) Connected to hyoid bone by thyrohyoid membrane. o Cricoid cartilage below thyroid cartilage Ring of cartilage that has an arch anteriorly and lamina posteriorly. Cricothyroid membrane attaches cricoid cartilage to thyoid cartilage. o Below cricoid cartilage, larynx becomes continuous with trachea. - The X represents the projection of the true vocal cords. o Lie at the midline of the thyroid cartilage. o If something should obstruct the upper part of the larynx, one can form an emergency airway opening by making an incision through the cricothyroid membrane. Cricothyrotomy - The larynx is vulnerable to injury o We can have shoulder straps from cars can produce blunt force trauma. o Sports injuries (hockey stick lashes across throat) o Fracture of the laryngeal cartilages. o As we get older, the laryngeal cartilages ossify. o Blunt trauma to the larynx they may be okay for a while, but the disturbed contents underneath may eventually disturb breathing. Internal bleeding Dissection of air into surrounding soft tissue spaces (subcutaneous air emphysema) Rice krispie crackling noise. Crepitus heard in patients.
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Cartilages of the Larynx - Cartilages are connected by membrane and muscles. - Pair of synovial joints to move the cartilages to affect the tension of the vocal cords. - Thyroid cartilage o Posterior view of thyroid cartilage. Superiorly there is a superior horn. Inferiorly there is an inferior horn. o Single shield-like piece of cartilage. Union of two laminae - Epiglottis o Lead-shaped looking piece of cartilage that attaches to the inner surface of the thyroid cartilage. o Attaches to hyoid bone. o Attaches to the posterior aspect of the tongue by way of glosso-epiglottic folds. - Cricoid Cartilage o Posterior aspect of this in picture. Lamina Resting on top are arytenoid cartilages (pyramid shaped) o Arch is anterior o Single piece of cartilage o Cricoythyroid joint Synovial joint between a set of lateral aspect of lamina and inferior horn of thyroid cartilage.
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  • Fall '11
  • Brooks
  • Anatomy, vocal folds, arytenoid cartilage, vocal cords, vocal ligaments

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