Jan_26_BIOLOGICAL_MOLECULES

Jan_26_BIOLOGICAL_MOLECULES - BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES Chemical...

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BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES Chemical bond: when two incomplete atoms share or donates outer electrons. These atoms are now held together by a chemical bond. Ion: an atom or molecule with an electrical charge resulting froma gain or loss of one or more electrons o Ionic bond: two ions with opposite charges attracted together (neutral) Covalent bond: two atoms share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons o C:C 4 covalent bonds around carbon, 2 around oxygen, 1 around hydrogen molecule: formed by two or more covalent bonds held together electronegativity: an atom’s attraction for shared electrons. The higher electronegativity, the stronger it pulls shared electrons toward the nucleus. o Non-polar covalent bonds: equally shared electrons o Polar-covalent bond: unequal sharing of electrons (water-the oxygen atom is slightly negative and hydrogen atom is partially positive. o Water is a polar molecule (unequal distribution of charges
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