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Gross Anatomy Lecture Notes - Pterygopalatine Fossa, Nasal Cavity, and Paranasal Sinuses

Gross Anatomy Lecture Notes - Pterygopalatine Fossa, Nasal Cavity, and Paranasal Sinuses

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D503/D850 Gross Anatomy Lecture Notes 11/18/11 – Pterygopalatine Fossa, Nasal Cavity, and Paranasal Sinuses Lab Instructions - We’ll cut through the nostril on the side of the face opposite of where we did the orbital dissection. - Cut through the midline of the upper lip - Saw blade will go through the cribiform plate on that side. - The head will fall partially away - Dorsal surface of the tongue - Cut through the midline of the lower lip and chain and dorsum of tongue. - Then saw through the mandible to completely separate halves of the head. - Good exposure of nasopharyngeal wall. Swallowing (from Head 6) - Strokes can take away a joy of life: ability to swallow food. - When we think of the swallowing mechanism: o Oral preparatory stage: savoring and processing food to get ready for swallowing. Lips are closed and tension with orbicularis oris and buccinators muscle. Food is kept in occlusal surface, not vestibule. Muscles of mastication are used to chew it. A functioning tongue acts as a turbine to the bolus of the food turning it over. Things are reduced to size and consistency safe for swallowing. At that same time, the palatoglossus muscles are sealing the oral cavity from the oral pharynx so person can breathe. o Oral stage o Pharyngeal stage: The dump track that is the bolus is backing up into the palatoglassoal folds. Now gag reflex occurs where the contents spill down (point of no return). If things go wrong, this will get aspirated into the airway: coughing. There is elevation of the soft palate to seal off the nasopharynx from the oropharynx. The constrictor muscles act sequentialy to squeeze the bolus of food posteriorly. In this process of sequential contracting, it will strip away and clean away the material that is collected in the valaculae or the piriform sinuses. Vocal cords are adducting coming together to seal the airway. Suprahyoid muscles will close the jaw. o They elevate the pharynx and the larynx. o It takes the larynx up behind the tongue closing the epiglottis over the aditus protecting the airway that way.
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o Cricopharyngeus muscle is contracted until a bolus food approaches at which point it relaxes to allow food through. o Esophageal stage Head 7 - The distribution of the maxillary nerve and the maxillary artery will be discussed today. - Olfactory bulb is in the ethmoid area which carries a tract going back to the brain. - Cribiform plate has 15 – 20 neurofilaments passing through it that is known as CN 1 o The holes in the cribiform plate go to the nasal cavity. Contains olfactory epithelium to convey the sense of smell. - Middle cranial fossa o Foramen rotundum Takes us to pterygopalatine fossa Maxillary nerve suspends the pterygopalatine fossa - Greater petrosal branch of facial nerve we shall discuss today.
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