Study Guide for Exam 3 Complete

Study Guide for Exam 3 Complete - ZOL 445 Evolution...

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ZOL 445 Evolution November 16, 2011 Review Guide October 26: Adaptation 1 Describe how evolutionary biologists test for the adapative significance of a trait. o Identify local trait o Identify genetic variation of trait o Hypothesize why particular genetic variants of trait have selective advantage o Test predictions of hypotheses. Explain why researchers should take into account evolutionary history when comparing traits among species. o Only INDEPENDENT evolutionary events are evidence that common traits have adaptive function To test adaptive hypotheses, must identify as many independent evolutionary events as possible Apply the principle of parsimony to reconstruct ancestral traits on a phylogeny. o Parsimony : Idea that simplest explanation is best. In phylogenetic analysis , the phylogeny that involves the fewest changes in character states when considering alternative branching patterns for aphylogeny . Use a phylogeny to conduct a correct comparative analysis. o See lecture powerpoint. October 31: Adaptation 2 Explain the selective pressures that underlie the evolution of trichromatic vision in primates. o Trichromatic vision is an adaptation to allow identification of food defined by color. o Dichromatic vision is more likely to be selected for when food is defined by shape. Be able to construct reasonable hypotheses as to the adaptive value of a particular trait (also covered in Evo-Beaker #1) Be able to design correctly controlled experiments to test adaptive hypotheses (also covered in Evo-Beaker #1) Explain the benefits and limitations of the different methods of testing adaptive hypotheses. Source of Variation Method Inference Variation between species Comparative method Correlative Experimental manipulation Experimental method Causative ‘Variation’ within species Observation method Correlative
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o Comparative and observational methods take into account real genetic variation (pro) but only demonstrate correlation (con) o Experimental demonstrates causation (pro) but only guesses at genetic variation (con) November 2: Adaptation 3 Describe the difference between adaptation and exaptation. o
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Study Guide for Exam 3 Complete - ZOL 445 Evolution...

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