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# lecture 6 - Lecture 6 Lecture Goals o Be able to calculate...

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1 Lecture 6 Direct Standardization Lecture Goals o Be able to calculate and interpret: o Crude rates o Specific rates o Adjusted rates o Identify information needed for direct standardization o Discuss the limitations of crude, specific, and adjusted rates o Interpret differences between crude and adjusted rates Crude Rates o Provide an overall picture of the number of outcomes (events) that occur in a population over a given period of time o Make use of the “raw data” Examples: o Crude death rate o Crude birth rate Calculating Crude Rates What information do we need? 1. Number of events 2. Total population Calculating a Crude Rate Each year, there are 40,000 deaths in Florida. If 10 million people live in Florida, calculate the crude death rate. Express this rate per 1,000. Crude rate = # deaths total population Crude rate = 40,000 * 1,000 = 4 per 1,000 10,000,000 Crude Rates: Limitations o Don’t account for differences in population structure (proportions) o Therefore, we can’t compare crude rates from different populations Example: If California has a lower crude death rate than Florida, does that mean that California is a healthier place to live?

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2 Specific Rates o Illustrate rates for specific strata (or subgroups) of a population o Allow for comparisons: o Among strata within a single population o Between comparable groups across several populations o Common specific rates: age, gender, race, ethnicity, smoking Constructing Specific Rates What information do we need? 1. Stratum-specific structure of the study population 2. Number of outcomes for each stratum of the study population Calculating Specific Rates 3,220,000 4,122 50-59 11,750,000 4,730 3,680,000 405 40-49 2,850,000 177 30-39 2,000,000 26 20-29 # people # deaths Age Crude rate = ? Age-specific rate for 20-29 year olds = ? Below is a table of deaths in New Jersey residents. Calculate the crude and age-specific death rates.
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