lecture 8 - Descriptive vs. Analytic Epi Lecture 8...

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1 Lecture 8 Surveillance and Descriptive Epidemiology Descriptive vs. Analytic Epi Descriptive Analytic Characterize amount and Identify explanation for disease distribution of disease occurrence in a population in a population Identify health problems Identify cause(s) of health problems Objectives of Descriptive Epidemiology o Evaluate health trends and make comparisons o Provide a foundation for planning, provision and evaluation of health services o Generate hypotheses to be studied by analytic methods Descriptive Studies Consideration of three factors o Person - Who gets sick, and who stays well? o Place -Whereareratesh ighorlow? o Time - How does time affect disease? Characteristics of Persons o Examine the “who” of disease occurrence o Age o Gender o Marital status o Race and ethnicity o Migration o Religion o Socioeconomic Status (SES) Characteristics of Persons: Age o Leading causes of death vary by age o Infants: prematurity o Ages 1-14: Accidents (other than auto) o Ages 15-24: Motor vehicle accidents o Ages 25-65: Heart disease o Ages 65 and older: Heart disease o Certain diseases are more prominent in children o Chicken pox, otitis media o Certain diseases peak at more than one age o Hodgkin’s has bimodal peaks: mid-20s, early 70s o Bimodal peaks may suggest two different causal
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2 Population Pyramids o Populations are dynamic o Pyramid shape is a result of the numbers of people born in the years of the age groups o Tall, pointed pyramid o Few people in the older age groups o High birth rate, high death rate o Block-shaped pyramid o High life expectancy o High birth rates Examples: http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbpyr.html Characteristics of Persons: Gender o Men are different from women! o Males have higher mortality rates than women o Females have higher morbidity rates than males o Males have higher rates of chronic handicap than females o Females are more likely to attempt suicide, but men are more likely to successfully commit suicide o Differences may be related to biological, lifestyle, behavioral and environmental factors o Example: From 1975 to 1990 lung cancer mortality increased faster for women than for men Characteristics of Persons: Marital Status o Married people have lower morbidity and mortality rates than non-married people o Divorced men have highest death rates among unmarried groups o Marital status is related to suicide rates o Marriage may be a protective factor for good health o Racial and ethnic differences exist for a number of health conditions o African Americans have the highest mortality of any racial group, especially for hypertension and stroke o Diabetes incidence is higher for Native Americans than for Whites o Asians have lower mortality rates than Whites o Native Americans have the highest infant mortality rates o Diversity is often lost in race/ethnicity statistics o Diversity within racial and ethnic groups is not
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lecture 8 - Descriptive vs. Analytic Epi Lecture 8...

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