10-14 AcidBaseLandscape - Acid and Base Equilibria Chapter...

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1 CH112 LRSVDS ACIDS BASES Part 2 Acid and Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Review Chapter 4.1 ( Electrolytes ) Review Chapter 4.3 ( Acid-Base Reactions ) Memorize 7 Strong Acids (Table 4.2) Memorize the Strong Bases (Also Table 4.2) Review Equilibrium (Ch. 15) PRE-REQUISITES:
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2 CH112 LRSVDS ACIDS BASES Part 2 What do you already know about ACIDS? 1) Acids Taste? 2) Acids dissolve active metals, usually liberating __________. 3) Acids are corrosive – they dissolve compounds that are otherwise hard to dissolve. 4) Acids turn litmus paper ______________ .
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3 CH112 LRSVDS ACIDS BASES Part 2 What do you already know about BASES? 1) Bases Taste? 2) Bases dissolve oil and grease. 3) Bases are slippery to the touch. 4) Bases react with many metal ions to form solid precipitates. 5) Bases turn litmus paper ________________
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4 CH112 LRSVDS ACIDS BASES Part 2 Definitions: Arrhenius ACID: Any compound that releases H + when dissolved in H 2 O. Arrhenius BASE: Any compound that releases OH - when dissolved in H 2 O. ARRHENIUS Acids and Bases
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5 CH112 LRSVDS ACIDS BASES Part 2 Hydronium ion Need a new definition of acids and bases based on Proton Transfer
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6 CH112 LRSVDS ACIDS BASES Part 2 Br Ø nsted ACID: Any compound capable of donating an H + ion. Br Ø nsted BASE: Any compound capable of accepting a H + ion . New definition based on proton transfer: BRØNSTED – LOWRY ACIDS AND BASES
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7 CH112 LRSVDS ACIDS BASES Part 2 Differ only by the presence or absence of a proton (H + ). Conjugate Acid Conjugate Base + H + Examples: Conjugate Acid Conjugate Base Note: The stronger the acid, the weaker its conjugate base. The weaker the acid , the stronger its conjugate base.
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8 CH112 LRSVDS ACIDS BASES Part 2 1. The conjugate of a strong acid is a ______________ . (Example: Cl - is the conjugate base of HCl). Spectators have negligible acidity/basicity. 2. The conjugate acid of OH - (strong base ) is _________ ( negligible acidity). Also true for strong bases H ʵ and CH 3 ʵ . 3. The conjugate of a weak acid is a _________________ . Species Conjugate Strong Acid Strong Base Weak Base
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9 CH112 LRSVDS ACIDS BASES Part 2
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10 CH112 LRSVDS ACIDS BASES Part 2 Auto-ionization of water: Water electrolyzes slightly to produce H + and OH - reversibly . H 2 O(l) H + (aq) + OH - (aq) What is the equilibrium constant expression for this process? What is the [H + ] of pure water at 25 ° C?
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11 CH112 LRSVDS ACIDS BASES Part 2 NOTE: K w is constant even when [H + ] and [OH - ] are not equal . Calculate [H + ] in a 0.05 M Ca(OH) 2 solution @ 25°C: K w is the Ion Product Constant for water
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