lecture 15 - Concepts in Infectious Epidemiology Lecture 15...

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1 Lecture 15 Infectious Disease Epidemiology Concepts in Infectious Epidemiology { Epi Triad: Agent, host, environment { Classification of human infections by modes of transportation { Incubation period { Spectrum of disease { Herd immunity Many infectious diseases are communicable . Some are not! Definitions ± A communicable disease is one that can be transmitted from one human to another or from animals to humans ± Many, but not all are reportable diseases ± Measles is reportable ± Head colds are not Definitions ± A zoonosis is a type of communicable disease that is transmissible from a vertebrate animal to man. Normally it is a disease of animals Zoonoses ± Rabies ± Plague ± West Nile Virus ± Eastern Equine Encephalitis ± Brucellosis ± Anthrax ± Trichinosis ± Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever ± Lyme Disease ± Typhus ± Leptospirosis ± Q Fever ± Tularemia ± Hantavirus Example – Plague (zoonosis) ± In 1-6 days after an infected flea bite, the subject gets lymphadenopathy ± The bite gets gangrenous and necrotic – turning black ± The resultant infection causes septicemia and death
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2 Emerging Infectious Diseases due to { Human demographics and behavior { Technology and industry { Economic development and land use { International travel and commerce { Microbial adaptation and change { Breakdown of public health measures (Katrina) { http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/ 9 Epidemiologic Triad AGENT HOST ENVIRONMENT Epidemiologic Triad Concepts { Infectivity { Pathogenicity { Virulence { All are dependent upon the condition of the host { Immunity (active, passive) { Nutrition { Sleep { Hygiene INFECTIVITY { Measures the ability to invade a host Number of infected Number of susceptibles X 100 PATHOGENICITY { Measures the ability to cause disease number with clinical disease number of infected X 100 VIRULENCE { Measures the severity of disease Number of deaths Number of people with disease X 100
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3 Definition: Agent A microorganism, chemical, nutritive element or physical factor whose presence or absence is essential for a particular disease or condition to occur Types of Agents ± Bacteria ± Virus ± Protozoa ± Parasite ± Fungi ± Diet deficiency ± Diet excess
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2008 for the course PUBLIC HEA 832:335 taught by Professor Schneider during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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lecture 15 - Concepts in Infectious Epidemiology Lecture 15...

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