lecture 4 - Lecture 4 Lecture Goals o Discuss criteria used...

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1 Lecture 4 Data Sources Lecture Goals o Discuss criteria used to consider the quality and value of epidemiologic data o Understand and discuss the importance of the U.S. Census as a tool for epidemiology o Cite examples of sources that might used to provide data for epidemiologic studies o Discuss the strengths and limitations of various data sources Criteria for Selecting Data o Nature of data o Availability o Completeness o How representative are the data of the population? o How thorough are the data? o Limitations Nature of the Data o Where do the data come from? o Local vs. state vs. federal o Physician or hospital records o Case registries o Vital statistics records o How were the data collected? o Primary Data – collected by the investigators themselves o Secondary Data – collected by someone other than the investigator Availability of the Data o How accessible are the data? o Permission of the patient to release information o Permission of people who collected the data o Data archives o Internet sources Completeness of the Data o Are the data generalizable to the population of interest? o Were any major subgroups of the population omitted? o Are all cases included? o Were all the questions asked and answered?
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2 Limitations of the Data o Are there problems with how the data were collected? o Were any data points duplicated? o Are the data valid? o Are the data reliable? Validity vs. Reliability Validity o Ability to measure the “true” value Reliability o Ability to reproduce the data Reliability vs. Validity Not reliable, not valid Reliable, not valid Reliable, valid Data & Confidentiality: HIPPA o Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act o Written in 1996; enforced nationally on 4/14/03 o Comprehensive federal health information privacy guidelines that regulates how protected health information (PHI) is used and disclosed o Consideration of identified vs. de-identified data Types of Data Used in Epidemiology o Demographic data o Socioeconomic data o Vital statistics data o Health status (surveillance) data o Healthcare utilization data o Behavioral data Census Data o Recommendations for collecting census data: o Collected in one day o Sponsored by the national government o Conducted periodically o Use individual enumeration to count the population www.census.gov
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3 U.S. Census: Changes o 1850 – Use individual data instead of family data o 1940 – Administer a detailed sub-questionnaire to select people o 2000 – OMB instituted new methods for the collection of race data o Ethnicity reported before race o Two ethnic categories o Five racial categories; choose all that apply o All federal programs use these standards by 6/03 Ethnicity Categories o Hispanic/Latino o Puerto Rican, Mexican, Cuban, or other Spanish culture or origin o Classification is REGARDLESS of race o
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lecture 4 - Lecture 4 Lecture Goals o Discuss criteria used...

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