Shoe_Surface_AJSM - Peak Torque and Rotational Stiffness...

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Participation in field sports is an important part of American culture, and overall levels of participation have increased dramatically in the past 20 years, as have the number of injuries to the lower extremities, especially the knees. There are an estimated 80 000 ACL tears each year in the United States alone, 4 and approximately 50 000 ACL reconstruc- tions are performed annually, leading to a total cost of these injuries of almost $1 billion per year. 4 Although many ACL injuries are caused by collisions between players, the vast majority of these injuries—approximately 70%—occur in noncontact situations, 4 including falls, sudden stops while running, or rapid changes of direction. 1 From an injury pre- vention perspective, there are numerous possible causes for these noncontact ACL injuries, but a primary factor impli- cated in many of them is the interaction between the player’s shoe and the playing surface. Torg and Quedenfeld 11 were among the first researchers to document the important role that the interaction between a shoe and the playing surface has in understanding and preventing noncontact injuries. They observed that the number and size of cleats on a shoe were correlated with the occurrence of knee and ankle injuries in (American) foot- ball 11 ; less aggressive cleats produced fewer injuries. In a follow-up study, Torg et al 12 defined a “release coefficient” based on the peak torque developed at the shoe-surface interface, to quantify the injury potential of specific shoe- surface combinations. Peak Torque and Rotational Stiffness Developed at the Shoe-Surface Interface The Effect of Shoe Type and Playing Surface Glen A. Livesay,* PhD, Dawn R. Reda, MS, and Eric A. Nauman, § PhD From the Department of Applied Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, Indiana, the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, and the § School of Mechanical Engineering, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana Background: Shoe-surface interactions have been implicated in the high number of noncontact knee injuries suffered by athletes at all levels. Purpose: To examine shoe-surface interactions on newer field designs and compare these with more traditional shoe-surface combinations. The peak torque and rotational stiffness (the rate at which torque is developed under rotation) were determined. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: A device was constructed to measure the torque versus applied rotation developed between different shoe-surface combinations. Data were collected on 5 different playing surfaces (natural grass, Astroturf, 2 types of Astroplay, and FieldTurf), using 2 types of shoes (grass and turf), under a compressive load of 333 N.
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2011 for the course ME 270 taught by Professor Murphy during the Fall '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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Shoe_Surface_AJSM - Peak Torque and Rotational Stiffness...

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