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Unformatted text preview: The Commission on Higher Education in collaboration with the Philippine Normal University Teaching Guide for Senior High School GENERAL BIOLOGY 2 CORE SUBJECT This Teaching Guide was collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and universities. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Commission on Higher Education, K to 12 Transition Program Management Unit - Senior High School Support Team at [email protected] We value your feedback and recommendations. Published by the Commission on Higher Education, 2016 CHAIRPERSON: Patricia B. Licuanan, Ph.D. Commission on Higher Education K to 12 Transition Program Management Unit Office Address: 4th Floor, Commission on Higher Education, C.P. Garcia Ave., Diliman, Quezon City Telefax: (02) 441-0927 / E-mail Address: [email protected] Development Team This Teaching Guide by the Commission on Higher Education is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. This means you are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material. The licensor, CHED, cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. However, under the following terms: Team Leader: Ivan Marcelo A. Duka Writers: Neil Andrew B. Bascos, Ph.D., Ma. Genaleen Q. Diaz, Ph.D., Ian Kendrich C. Fontanilla, Ph.D., Ma. Carmina C. Manuel, Ph.D., Sharon Rose M. Tabugo, Ph.D., Eugenio P. Quijano Jr. Technical Editors: Annalee S. Hadsall, Ph.D. Copy Reader: Caroline H. Pajaron Illustrator: Ma. Daniella Louise F. Borrero Cover Artists: Paolo Kurtis N. Tan, Renan U. Ortiz Senior High School Support Team CHED K to 12 Transition Program Management Unit Program Director: Karol Mark R. Yee Lead for Senior High School Support: Gerson M. Abesamis Consultants THIS PROJECT WAS DEVELOPED WITH THE PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY. University President: Ester B. Ogena, Ph.D. VP for Academics: Ma. Antoinette C. Montealegre, Ph.D. VP for University Relations & Advancement: Rosemarievic V. Diaz, Ph.D. Ma. Cynthia Rose B. Bautista, Ph.D., CHED Bienvenido F. Nebres, S.J., Ph.D., Ateneo de Manila University Carmela C. Oracion, Ph.D., Ateneo de Manila University Minella C. Alarcon, Ph.D., CHED Gareth Price, Sheffield Hallam University Stuart Bevins, Ph.D., Sheffield Hallam University Lead for Policy Advocacy and Communications: Averill M. Pizarro Course Development Officers: John Carlo P. Fernando, Danie Son D. Gonzalvo Teacher Training Officers: Ma. Theresa C. Carlos, Mylene E. Dones Monitoring and Evaluation Officer: Robert Adrian N. Daulat Administrative Officers: Ma. Leana Paula B. Bato, Kevin Ross D. Nera, Allison A. Danao, Ayhen Loisse B. Dalena Printed in the Philippines by EC-TEC Commercial, No. 32 St. Louis Compound 7, Baesa, Quezon City, [email protected] Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes. ShareAlike — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original. Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii Chapter 3: Systematics Based on Evolutionary Relationships DepEd General Biology 2 Curriculum Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi Lesson 14: Systematics Based on Evolutionary Relationships: Chapter 1: Genetics Tree of Life and Systematics.............................................................. 109 Lesson 1: Pedigree Analysis....................................................... 1 Lesson 15: Systematics Based on Evolutionary Relationships: Taxonomy 117 Lesson 16: Systematics Based on Evolutionary Relationships: Lesson 2: Sex Linkage and Recombination................................. 8 Cladistics and Phylogeny..................................................................129 Lesson 3: Modifications to Mendel’s Classic Ratios.....................13 Chapter 4: Compare and Contrast Processes in Plants and Animals Lesson 4: Molecular Structure of DNA, RNA, and Proteins......... 19 Lesson 17: Reproduction and Development...................................136 24 Lesson 5: DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis....................... Lesson 6: Genetic Engineering.................................................... 30 Lesson 7: Discuss the Applications of Recombinant DNA . . . . 36 Lesson 18: Nutrition.........................................................................158 Chapter 2: Evolution and Origin of Biodiversity Lesson 19: Gas Exchange................................................................ 179 Lesson 8: History of Life on Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Lesson 20: Transport and Circulation...............................................190 Lesson 9: Mechanisms that Produce Change in Populations . . 70 Lesson 21: Regulation of Body Fluids..............................................194 Lesson 10: Evolution and Origin of Biodiversity: Patterns of Descent with Modification.............................................................81 Lesson 22: Immune Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Lesson 11: Development of Evolutionary Thought . . . . . . . . . 87 214 Lesson 23: Chemical and Nervous Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 24: Sensory and Motor Mechanisms...................................226 Lesson 12: Evidences of Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Lesson 25: Feedback Mechanisms..................................................235 Lesson 13: Infer Evolutionary Relationships of Organisms . . . . 102 Colored Images...............................................................................249 Biographical Notes.......................................................................... 257 i Introduction SHS for SHS Framework As the Commission supports DepEd’s implementation of Senior High School (SHS), it upholds the vision and mission of the K to 12 program, stated in Section 2 of Republic Act 10533, or the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, that “every graduate of basic education be an empowered individual, through a program rooted on...the competence to engage in work and be productive, the ability to coexist in fruitful harmony with local and global communities, the capability to engage in creative and critical thinking, and the capacity and willingness to transform others and oneself.” To accomplish this, the Commission partnered with the Philippine Normal University (PNU), the National Center for Teacher Education, to develop Teaching Guides for Courses of SHS. Together with PNU, this Teaching Guide was studied and reviewed by education and pedagogy experts, and was enhanced with appropriate methodologies and strategies. Furthermore, the Commission believes that teachers are the most important partners in attaining this goal. Incorporated in this Teaching Guide is a framework that will guide them in creating lessons and assessment tools, support them in facilitating activities and questions, and assist them towards deeper content areas and competencies. Thus, the introduction of the SHS for SHS Framework. The SHS for SHS Framework, which stands for “Saysay-Husay-Sarili for Senior High School,” is at the core of this book. The lessons, which combine high-quality content with flexible elements to accommodate diversity of teachers and environments, promote these three fundamental concepts: SAYSAY: MEANING Why is this important? Through this Teaching Guide, teachers will be able to facilitate an understanding of the value of the lessons, for each learner to fully engage in the content on both the cognitive and affective levels. HUSAY: MASTERY SARILI: OWNERSHIP How will I deeply understand this? What can I do with this? Given that developing mastery goes beyond memorization, teachers should also aim for deep understanding of the subject matter where they lead learners to analyze and synthesize knowledge. When teachers empower learners to take ownership of their learning, they develop independence and selfdirection, learning about both the subject matter and themselves. About this Teaching Guide The Philippines is frequently cited as among the top countries most at risk to disasters. While disasters can arise from man-made sources, the most inevitable ones come from natural phenomena. Even without scientific scrutiny, every Filipino is familiar with the impacts of typhoons, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and fires to everyday life and to national development. This makes learning about disaster preparedness aligned with everyone’s interests. This teaching guide for the Disaster Readiness and Risk Reduction (DRRR) subject of the Philippines’ K-12 Curriculum provides a lesson-by-lesson framework for educators to help learners attain the target competencies and outcomes. The challenge with teaching a subject like DRRR is its multi-disciplinary nature, bringing together biological, geophysical, socio-cultural, political, and economic factors. This in itself is an opportunity to make these various subject matters relevant to the lives of the people even if studying disasters leans toward the sciences. With the use of these teaching guides, the teacher will be able to handle a diverse set of materials that will enrich their existing knowledge on the natural and social sciences. They will also be able to engage learners in a number of hands-on activities that make use of mixed-media to maximize existing resources. And overall, lessons tackled in these guides encourage a two-way interaction between the teachers and students that will ultimately result to effective learning. Lessons of these teaching guides address the content standards identified by the Department of Education (DepEd). Some teaching guides may include multiple learning competencies as that may be more efficiently achieved when tackled together. This guide approaches learning about DRRR by first understanding the hazards that may then potentially lead to disasters, as a common confusion arises from distinguishing the concepts of “hazard and “disaster”. Each hazard type has its own precautionary measures and ideal responses to prevent disasters. Towards the end of the subject, learners will focus on applications to the community and the Philippine society. Users of these guides should note that sciences and policies related to DRRR are ever evolving along with improvements and breakthroughs in data collection and technology; so it is expected that reference materials also change through time. It would be important for teachers of the subject to continually update any cited references in each guide to make sure that the lessons will also result to cutting-edge teaching. As a big part of understanding disasters involves projecting future possibilities, the success of teaching the subject of Disaster Readiness and Risk Reduction may not be immediately measurable and definitely not something anyone is looking forward to test. But while the country is exposed to hazards that can alter the course of everyday life, bringing this subject to each classroom gives the people the power to take control of their lives and of nation-building in whatever the situation they may encounter in the future. iii Parts of the Teaching Guide This Teaching Guide is mapped and aligned to the DepEd SHS Curriculum, designed to be highly usable for teachers. It contains classroom activities and pedagogical notes, and is integrated with innovative pedagogies. All of these elements are presented in the following parts: 1. • • • • • 2. • • • • 3. • • • • 4. • • • • 5. • • • • 6. • • Introduction Highlight key concepts and identify the essential questions Show the big picture Connect and/or review prerequisite knowledge Clearly communicate learning competencies and objectives Motivate through applications and connections to real-life Motivation Give local examples and applications Engage in a game or movement activity Provide a hands-on/laboratory activity Connect to a real-life problem Instruction/Delivery Give a demonstration/lecture/simulation/hands-on activity Show step-by-step solutions to sample problems Give applications of the theory Connect to a real-life problem if applicable Practice Discuss worked-out examples Provide easy-medium-hard questions Give time for hands-on unguided classroom work and discovery Use formative assessment to give feedback Enrichment Provide additional examples and applications Introduce extensions or generalisations of concepts Engage in reflection questions Encourage analysis through higher order thinking prompts Evaluation Supply a diverse question bank for written work and exercises Provide alternative formats for student work: written homework, journal, portfolio, group/individual projects, student-directed research project On DepEd Functional Skills and CHED College Readiness Standards As Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) welcome the graduates of the Senior High School program, it is of paramount importance to align Functional Skills set by DepEd with the College Readiness Standards stated by CHED. On the other hand, the Commission declared the College Readiness Standards that consist of the combination of knowledge, skills, and reflective thinking necessary to participate and succeed without remediation - in entry-level undergraduate courses in college. The DepEd articulated a set of 21st century skills that should be embedded in the SHS curriculum across various subjects and tracks. These skills are desired outcomes that K to 12 graduates should possess in order to proceed to either higher education, employment, entrepreneurship, or middle-level skills development. The alignment of both standards, shown below, is also presented in this Teaching Guide - prepares Senior High School graduates to the revised college curriculum which will initially be implemented by AY 2018-2019. College Readiness Standards Foundational Skills DepEd Functional Skills Produce all forms of texts (written, oral, visual, digital) based on: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Solid grounding on Philippine experience and culture; An understanding of the self, community, and nation; Application of critical and creative thinking and doing processes; Competency in formulating ideas/arguments logically, scientifically, and creatively; and Clear appreciation of one’s responsibility as a citizen of a multicultural Philippines and a diverse world; Visual and information literacies, media literacy, critical thinking and problem solving skills, creativity, initiative and self-direction Systematically apply knowledge, understanding, theory, and skills for the development of the self, local, and global communities using prior learning, inquiry, and experimentation Global awareness, scientific and economic literacy, curiosity, critical thinking and problem solving skills, risk taking, flexibility and adaptability, initiative and self-direction Work comfortably with relevant technologies and develop adaptations and innovations for significant use in local and global communities Global awareness, media literacy, technological literacy, creativity, flexibility and adaptability, productivity and accountability Communicate with local and global communities with proficiency, orally, in writing, and through new technologies of communication Global awareness, multicultural literacy, collaboration and interpersonal skills, social and cross-cultural skills, leadership and responsibility Interact meaningfully in a social setting and contribute to the fulfilment of individual and shared goals, respecting the fundamental humanity of all persons and the diversity of groups and communities Media literacy, multicultural literacy, global awareness, collaboration and interpersonal skills, social and cross-cultural skills, leadership and responsibility, ethical, moral, and spiritual values v K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL – SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MATHEMATICS (STEM) SPECIALIZED SUBJECT Grade: Grade 11/12 Subject Title: Biology 2 I Quarters: 3rd to 4th Quarter No. of Hours: 40 hours/10 Weeks per Quarter Subject Description: This subject is designed to enhance the understanding of the principles and concepts in the study of biology, particularly heredity and variation, and the diversity of living organisms, their structure, function, and evolution. CONTENT Organism al Biology CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES The learners The learners: demonstrate an The learners shall be able 1. compare and contrast the following processes understanding of: to: in plants and animals: reproduction, development, nutrition, gas exchange, 1. Plant and Animal develop a presentation transport/circulation, regulation of body fluids, Organ Systems (e.g. role-playing, chemical and nervous control, immune and their dramatization and other systems, and sensory and motor mechanisms Functions forms of multimedia) to 2. explain how some organisms maintain steady show how an organism internal conditions that possess various maintains homeostasis structures and processes through the interaction of the various organ systems 3. describe examples of homeostasis (e.g., 2. Feedback in the body temperature regulation, osmotic balance and Mechanisms glucose levels) and the major features of feedback loops that produce such homeostasis 1. Genetics 1. Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance 2. Sex Linkage 3. Central Dogma of Molecular Biology 4. Recombinant DNA make a pedigree analysis in the learner’s family using a simple genetic trait 2. make a research paper/case study/poster on genetic diseases 3. make a diagram (e.g., pictogram, poster) showing the evolution of a domesticated crop 4. differentiate the 3Domain Scheme from the 5-Kingdom Scheme of classification of living things 1. predict genotypes and phenotypes of parents and offspring using the laws of inheritance 2. explain sex linkage and recombination 3. describe modifications to Mendel’s classic ratios (gene interaction) 4. illustrate the molecular structure of DNA, RNA, and proteins 5. diagram the steps in DNA replication and protein synthesis 6. outline the processes involved in genetic engineering CODE 7. discuss the applications of recombinant DNA STEM_BIO11/12IVa-h-1 STEM_BIO11/12- IVi-j-2 STEM_BIO11/12- IVi-j-3 STEM_BIO11/12- IIIa-b-2 STEM_BIO11/12- IIIa-b-3 STEM_BIO11/12- IIIa-b-4 STEM_BIO11/12- IIIa-b-1 STEM_BIO11/12IIIa-b-6 STEM_BIO11/12IIIa-b-7 STEM_BIO11/12- IIIa-b-5 K to 12 Senior High School STEM Specialized Subject – General Biology 2 December 2013 3 Page 1 of K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL – SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MATHEMATICS (STEM) SPECIALIZED SUBJECT CONTEN T CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES 1. 2. Evolution and Origin of Biodiversity Systematics Based on Evolutionar y Relationship s Relevance, Mechanisms, Evidence/Bases, and Theories of Evolution Basic Taxonomic Concepts and Principles, Description, Nomenclature, Identification, and Classification 3. describe general features of the history of life on Earth, including generally accepted dates and sequence of the geologic time scale and characteristics of major groups of organisms present during these time periods explain the mechanisms that produce change in populations from generation to generation (e.g., artificial selection, natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, recombination) show patterns of descent with modification from common ancestors to produce the organismal diversity observed today CODE STEM_BIO11/12IIIc-g-8 STEM_BIO11/12IIIc-g-9 STEM_BIO11/12IIIc-g-10 STEM_...
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