lecture 13 - Goals of the Lecture Lecture 13 o Define...

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1 Lecture 13 Cohort Studies Goals of the Lecture o Define cohort studies and describe subtypes o Identify Framingham hypotheses o Describe three options for choosing a comparison population o Be familiar with “famous” cohort studies o Discuss advantages and disadvantages of using a cohort study o Define and describe nested case control studies Cohort Study Design o Goal: Identify cause(s) of disease by studying how exposed people differ from unexposed people with respect to incidence of disease o Subjects selected based on exposure status o Cases are the exposed people of interest o Controls are unexposed people who can serve as a comparison group o At baseline: o Exposure status is known for all subjects o All subjects are free of the disease of interest Cohort Study Design (cont’d) o Follow subjects over a set period of time and document development of disease o Compare incidence of disease in exposed to incidence of disease in unexposed (RR) o Prospective study design allows for temporality Cohort Study Design Study Population Exposed Unexposed Disease No disease Disease No disease Defining a Cohort o Cohort = group of people followed over time o College students o Physicians o Generations o Communities o Special “exposure” groups – smokers, alcoholics, workers, HIV patients, etc.
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2 Cohort Studies o Good method for studying o Rare exposures o Diseases with short latency periods o 3 subtypes o Prospective cohort o Retrospective cohort o Historical cohort Prospective Cohort Study o Exposure determined at baseline o Follow cohort forward in time from the start of the study and document who gets sick o Example: Follow healthy RU smokers and non-smokers for the next 20 years to see who gets asthma Retrospective Cohort Study o Use past exposure status to do the study o “Follow-up” for disease development is done from time of exposure (past) until present (time of the study) o Example: Look at students who entered RU 10 years ago (Fall 1996) and see who smoked and who didn’t at that time. Look at each group to see
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lecture 13 - Goals of the Lecture Lecture 13 o Define...

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