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Discontent and Refo16 - success During the 1870s a few...

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Discontent and Reform Late-19th century American farmers experienced recurring periods of hardship The first organized effort to address general agricultural problems was by the Patrons of  Husbandry, a farmer’s group popularly known as the Grange movement. Launched in  1867 by employees of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Granges focused initially  on social activities to counter the isolation most farm families encountered. Women's  participation was actively encouraged. Spurred by the Panic of 1873, the Grange soon  grew to 20,000 chapters and one-and-a-half million members. The Granges set up their own marketing systems, stores, processing plants, factories,  and cooperatives, but most ultimately failed.  The movement also enjoyed some political 
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Unformatted text preview: success. During the 1870s, a few states passed "Granger laws," limiting railroad and warehouse fees. By 1880 the Grange was in decline and being replaced by the Farmers' Alliances, which were similar in many respects but more overtly political. By 1890 the alliances, initially autonomous state organizations, had about 1.5 million members from New York to California. A parallel African-American group, the Colored Farmers National Alliance, claimed over a million members. Federating into two large Northern and Southern blocs, the alliances promoted elaborate economic programs to "unite the farmers of America for their protection against class legislation and the encroachments of concentrated capital."...
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