Stimulants - Uppers(stimulants Cocaine(hydrochloride crack...

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Unformatted text preview: Uppers (stimulants) Cocaine (hydrochloride, crack, freebase) Amphetamines (speed, meth, “ice”) Amphetamine congeners (Ritalin® , diet diet pills, e.g., fen-phen) pills, Plant stimulants (khat, betel nut, yohimbe) Caffeine (coffee, tea, soft drinks, OTC Caffeine meds) meds) Nicotine (cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco) Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 1 Initial Effects of Stimulants Effects Increased energy Increased heart rate, blood Increased pressure, breathing, & reflexes pressure, Restlessness & excessive talking Hypersensitivity Dilated pupils Little appetite or thirst Overconfidence Euphoria Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 2 Past Year U.S. Cocaine Use Past (includes crack) 2001 At least once At 4.2 million 12 or more days 1.7 million 51 or more days 1.0 million Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 3 Cocaine Absorption f o sl e ve L a m a P sl mre p s m r go na n a ( Intravenous Smoked Nasal Oral Minutes After Dose Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 4 Smokable cocaine (freebase, crack, paste) Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 5 Crack pipes Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 6 Amphetamines d,l amphetamine (e.g., benzedrine, d,l “crosstops,” “black beauties,” “bennies”) “crosstops,” Methamphetamine (e.g., methedrine, Methamphetamine “crank,” meth, “crystal”) “crank,” Dextroamphetamine (e.g., dexedrine, Dextroamphetamine “dexies,” “beans,” “Christmas trees”) “dexies,” Dextromethamphetamine (“ice,” “glass,” Dextromethamphetamine “batu,” “snot”) “batu,” Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 7 Methamphetamines Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 8 “Ice” Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 9 Amphetamine congeners Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 10 Severe ADHD: Without & With Ritalin® A B Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 11 Performance-Enhancing Drugs Anabolic Steroids Description Drugs derived from testosterone and approved for medical use, but often used by athletes to increase musculature and weight. Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 12 Performance-Enhancing Drugs Anabolic Steroids Claims • May enhance performance and improves physical appearance. • Reported to increase lean muscle mass, strength, and the ability to train longer and harder. Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 13 Performance-Enhancing Drugs Anabolic Steroids Risks • Liver tumors, jaundice, fluid retention, high blood pressure, severe acne, aggression and other psychiatric side effects. • Men: Shrinking testicles, reduced sperm count, infertility, baldness, and development of breasts. • Women: growth of facial hair, changes in or cessation of the menstrual cycle, enlargement of the clitoris, and deepened voice. Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 14 Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 15 Table 5-3, p.126 Performance-Enhancing Drugs Androstenodione Description A testosterone precursor normally produced by the adrenal glands and gonads. Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 16 Performance-Enhancing Drugs Androstenodione Claims Improves testosterone concentration, increases muscular strength and mass, helps reduce body fat, enhances mood, and improves sexual performance. Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 17 Performance-Enhancing Drugs Androstenodione Risks • Breast enlargement, increased risk of cardiovascular disease and pancreatic cancer in men, acne, male pattern baldness, and a decrease in “good” (HDL) cholesterol. • In women, high testosterone levels can cause increased body hair, deepening of the voice, and other male characteristics. Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 18 Performance-Enhancing Drugs Creatine Description Amino acid made by the body and stored predominantly in skeletal muscle. Creatine serves as a reservoir to replenish adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a substance involved in energy production. Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 19 Performance-Enhancing Drugs Creatine Claims Creatine supplements increase muscle stores of the compound, which theoretically allows athletes to work out harder and longer. Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 20 Performance-Enhancing Drugs Creatine Risks • Water retention, weightgain, muscle cramping, diarrhea, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and kidney dysfunction. • No benefit for lower-intensity, longer-duration exercises. Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 21 Other Ergogenic Aids Ergogenic Aids Substances used to enhance energy and provide athletes with a competitive advantage. Caffeine Baking Soda Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL) Glycerol Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 22 Lookalike Stimulants Any combination of Any Caffeine Caffeine Ephedrine Pseudoephedrine Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 23 Caffeine Content 1 demitasse espresso 1 cup freshly brewed 1 cup of tea 12 oz. cola 4 oz. chocolate bar 1 No-Doz® tablet 1 Vivarin ® tablet Vivarin 200 mg caffeine 90 – 125 mg 60 – 100 mg 36 – 60 mg 15 – 90 mg 100 mg 200 mg Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 24 U.S. Cigarette Use, 2001 (12 & older) (12 U.S. Ever used 68.9% 151.6 million Used past year 29.5% 65.6 million Used past month 24.9% 56.3 million Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 25 Blood Nicotine Blood Nicotine Level 24 Hours Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 26 Health Effects of Smoking Blood vessel constriction • grayish complexion • slow healing mechanisms • heart disease/stroke Lung and mouth irritation • shortness of breath • respiratory illnesses • cancer Addiction Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 27 Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 28 Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 29 Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 30 U. S. Lung Cancer Rate vs. Cigarette Sales Lung cancer deaths per 100,000 Cigarette sales (billions of cigarettes Copyright 2004, CNS Productions Inc. 31 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/26/2011 for the course SCI HTW318 taught by Professor Bergen-cico during the Fall '11 term at Syracuse.

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