Chapter10 - Chapter 10 Mental/Emotional Health& Drugs...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 Mental/Emotional Health & Drugs CHAPTER OVERVIEW MENTAL HEALTH & DRUGS About one-third of adults with any mental disorder, such as depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and personality disorders, also have a co-occurring substance use disorder. Some 50% to 70% of substance abusers also have a co-occurring mental health disorder. One reason is that the same neurotransmitters affected by mental illness are also affected by psychoactive drugs. Addictions and related disorders consists of substance abuse and substance dependence. Substance induced disorders consist of intoxication, withdrawal and temporary (usually) or permanent symptoms of certain mental health disorders. As with susceptibility to psychoactive drugs, mental illness is also strongly determined by heredity, environment, and the use of psychoactive drugs. DUAL DIAGNOSIS (CO-OCCURRING DISORDERS) Co-occurring disorders are defined as the existence in one individual of a mental illness and an independent substance use disorder. A mental illness can be pre-existing or substance induced (temporary or permanent). For example, heavy methamphetamine use can induce a psychosis or the meth user could have already had a pre-existing susceptibility to developing schizophrenia before starting their abuse of crystal meth. Decreasing inpatient mental health treatment resources has magnified the problem of co-occurring disorders. Those with mental/emotional problems often use drugs of abuse to self-medicate these problems. Drug use can aggravate a mental illness or mask it so making the diagnosis is difficult. Any assessment has to be a rule-out diagnosis, that is the effects of the drugs have to be given time to dissipate before making a diagnosis. Fortunately the previous distrust between the mental health community and the substance abuse community has partly given way to cooperation between the two groups. Even with increased acceptance of the need to treat both conditions simultaneously and promotion of “every door is the right door” strategy to better treat co-occurring disorders there is still a lack of full-service facilities to treat this population. The potential use of Minkoff’s Four-Quadrant Model to help resolve conflicts between substance abuse and mental health professionals in determining treatment interventions is examined. This chapter reviews symptoms of the most common psychiatric disorders. After defining the symptoms and effects of the various mental illnesses and the connection between neurotransmitters, street drugs, and psychiatric drugs, treatment approaches are examined. In particular, the use of psychiatric medications, e.g., antidepressants, antipsychotics, lithium, and antianxiety drugs are discussed. Clinical treatment with group, individual and even self-help groups is discussed....
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Chapter10 - Chapter 10 Mental/Emotional Health& Drugs...

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