Chapter05 - Chapter 5 Downers: Alcohol CHAPTER OVERVIEW...

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Chapter 5 Downers: Alcohol CHAPTER OVERVIEW Alcohol is the oldest and most widely used psychoactive drug in the world. Throughout history, societies’ attitudes towards the use of beer, wine, and distilled liquors has wavered between prohibition, temperance, and free use. Presently it is legal in most countries except Islamic ones. This chapter surveys the chemistry of alcohol, its pharmacology, and physiological/ psychological effects. The absorption and distribution of alcohol via the circulatory system can vary among every drinker and especially between men and women. Metabolism on the other hand eliminates the alcohol at a fairly fixed rate. The desired effects of alcohol include relaxation, lowering of inhibitions, and a certain high. The effects are very dose dependent. For heavier drinkers and long-term drinkers, alcohol causes more problems than any other psychoactive drug in terms of health effects, legal liabilities, domestic/social violence, and crime. Some of the side effects include decreased alertness, exaggerated emotions, slurred speech, inability to walk, heart problems, cirrhosis of the liver, neurological damage, and drunk driving arrests. Between 15% and 25% of emergency room patients test positive for alcohol while up to 40% of industrial fatalities involve alcohol. Binge drinking has increased at colleges. Many students bring their high school drinking patterns to college and overdo it in their freshman year. By their senior year most of the students learn how to control their drinking. Drinking patterns vary depending on the culture of the individual. As the members of each community assimilate into American culture, their drinking patterns change. The road to alcoholism can vary depending on family history, childhood abuse, peer pressure, and the availability of alcohol.
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Chapter 5 Downers: Alcohol OUTLINE I. OVERVIEW A. INTRODUCTION B. HISTORY (ALSO SEE CHAPTER 1) C. THE LEGAL DRUG II. ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES A. THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOL B. TYPES OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 1. Beer 2. Wine 3. Distilled Spirits (liquor) 4. Other Alcoholic Beverages III. ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, & METABOLISM A. ABSORPTION & DISTRIBUTION B. METABOLISM 1. Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) IV. DESIRED EFFECTS, SIDE EFFECTS, & HEALTH CONSEQUENCES A. LEVELS OF USE 1. Abstention 2. Experimentation 3. Social/Recreational Use 4. Habituation 5. Abuse 6. Addiction B. LOW-TO-MODERATE-DOSE EPISODES 1. Low-to-Moderate-Dose Use: Physical Effects 2. Low-to-Moderate-Dose Use: Psychological Effects 3. Neurotransmitters, Inhibition, & Other Effects 4. Low-to-Moderate-Dose Use: Sexual Effects C. HIGH-DOSE EPISODES 1. High-Dose Use: Physical Effects of Intoxication 2. High-Dose Use: Mental & Emotional Effects 3. High-Dose Use: Alcohol Poisoning (overdose)
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4. High-Dose Use: Blackouts 5. High-Dose Use: Hangover 6. High-Dose Use: Sobering Up D. CHRONIC HIGH-DOSE USE 1. Digestive System & Liver Disease 2. Other Digestive Organs 3. Cardiovascular Disease 4. Nervous System 5. Sexual Desire & Reproductive System
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This note was uploaded on 12/26/2011 for the course SCI HTW318 taught by Professor Bergen-cico during the Fall '11 term at Syracuse.

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Chapter05 - Chapter 5 Downers: Alcohol CHAPTER OVERVIEW...

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