Chapter04 - Chapter 4 Downers Opiates/Opioids...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 4 Downers: CHAPTER OVERVIEW The three major classes of downers (depressants), include opiates/opioids, sedative-hypnotics, and alcohol. The four minor classes are skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, over-the-counter depressants, and look-alike depressants. Generally downers depress the central nervous system. Desired effects include pain relief, sedation, anxiety control, muscle relaxation, suppression of inhibitions, and drowsiness. Undesired effects include depressed respiration, slowed heart rate, constipation, and slurred speech. If grossly misused the effects can include unconsciousness, coma, and death. They work by either inhibiting pain and stimulatory neurotransmitters or by mimicking the body’s natural sedating neurotransmitters. A prescription drug epidemic of mostly depressant drugs (opioid painkillers and benzodiazepine sedatives) that begin during the first decade of the second millennia has led to expansion of medication diversion difficulties, many overdoses, and new addiction problems. This chapter surveys the different types of opiates and opioids (e.g., heroin, codeine, morphine, methadone, buprenorphine, fentanyl, Vicodin® and OxyContin ® ), along with their history, effects, and side effects. It then examines the sedative-hypnotics (e.g., benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and z-hypnotics), their effects, side effects, drug interactions, synergism, addictive qualities, cross-dependence, and cross-tolerance. Alcohol is covered in Chapter 5. Finally, this chapter discusses other problems with depressants such as drug interactions, misuse, and diversion. It also examines prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications and the pharmaceutical industry as to its role in the depressant prescription drug epidemic and development of a prescription drug-dependent society.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 4 Downers: OUTLINE GENERAL CLASSIFICATION I. MAJOR DEPRESSANTS A. OPIATES/OPIOIDS B. SEDATIVE-HYPNOTICS C. ALCOHOL (SEE CHAPTER 5) II. MINOR DEPRESSANTS A. SKELETAL MUSCLE RELAXANTS B. ANTIHISTAMINES C. OVER-THE-COUNTER DOWNERS D. LOOKALIKE DOWNERS III. PRESCRPTION DRUG EPIDEMIC OPIATES/OPIOIDS IV. INTRODUCTION V. CLASSIFICATION A. OPIUM, OPIATES, & OPIOIDS VI. HISTORY OF USE (see Chapter 1) A. ORAL INGESTION B. SMOKING C. REFINEMENT OF MORPHINE, CODEINE, & HEROIN D. INJECTION USE E. PATENT MEDICINES F. SNORTING G. TWENTIETH CENTURY H. HEROIN - A WORLD VIEW 1. Mexican Heroin & Mexican Cartels VII. EFFECTS OF OPIOIDS A. PAIN & PLEASURE 1. Opioids & Receptor Sites 2. Pain 3. Pleasure B. FROM PLEASURE TO PAIN
Background image of page 2
C. COUGH SUPPRESSION & DIARRHEA CONTROL VIII. SIDE EFFECTS OF OPIOIDS A. PHYSICAL SIDE EFFECTS B. TOLERANCE, TISSUE DEPENDENCE, & WITHDRAWAL 1. Tolerance 2. Tissue Dependence 3. Withdrawal IX. ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS WITH HEROIN & OTHER OPIOIDS A. NEONATAL EFFECTS B. OVERDOSE C. DIRTY & SHARED NEEDLES 1. Hepatitis C & HIV 2. Abscesses & Other Infections D. DILUTION & ADULTERATION
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 25

Chapter04 - Chapter 4 Downers Opiates/Opioids...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online