Psychoanalysis Final PPT 2011 (1)

Psychoanalysis - Psychoanalysis 1 Psychoanalysis(Psychodynamic Theory Developed by Sigmund Freud Behavior influenced(generally unconsciously by

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Unformatted text preview: Psychoanalysis 1 Psychoanalysis (Psychodynamic Theory) Developed by Sigmund Freud Behavior influenced (generally unconsciously) by earlier experiences 2 Basic Concepts Basic Concepts of Psychoanalysis 3 Theoretical Concepts Theoretical Concepts The Unconscious Psychodynamics Defense Mechanisms Transference 4 The Unconscious The Unconscious States of mind outside awareness Includes emotional and cognitive processes Forms of memory that affect reactions and behaviors Freud’s contribution to the concept of unconscious is that it could be used to understand and treat psychological problems 5 Psychodynamics Psychodynamics Interplay of the forces of the mind Inner or intrapsychic conflict – conflict between parts of the self that hold opposing perceptions or emotions, one or more of which is out of awareness 6 Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms Automatic response to situations that elicit unconscious fears or anticipation of “psychic danger” Operate on an unconscious level and tend to deny or distort reality Helps one cope with anxiety and prevent the ego from being overwhelmed Have adaptive value if they do not become a style of life to avoid facing reality 7 Transference Transference Transfer of feelings originally experienced in an earlier relationship to other important people in a person’s present environment Fundamental concept in treatment 8 Clinical Concepts Free association Therapeutic listening Therapeutic responding Evenly hovering attention Interpretation – therapist offers feedback on central themes Empathy – conveying emotional understanding Therapeutic alliance – partnership between therapist and patient 9 History of Psychoanalysis 10 The Life of Freud 1856 Freud is born as the oldest of 6 surviving children 1873 Starts medical school and studies under Ernst Brucke 1877 Works with Josef Breuer who had a patient called Anna O. 1885 Studies under Jean Charcot in Paris who was using hypnosis 1896 Coins term "Psychoanalyse“; Freud starts his self­analysis 1897 Rejects his original seduction theory 1900 Publishes The Interpretation of Dreams 11 Life of Freud Life of Freud 1902 Forms Psychological Wednesday Society (Adler & Rank) 1904 Publishes Psychopathology of Everyday Life 1907 Freud & Jung meet in Vienna 1908 Forms Vienna Psychoanalytical Society 1909 Forms International Psychoanalytical Society with Carl Jung as the first president 1923 Develops structural model of id, ego, & superego 1933 Nazis burn his books in Berlin 1938 Leaves Vienna for London 1939 Sept. 26. Dies in London 12 Freud’s Pivotal Writings Interpretation of Dreams (1900) The Ego and the Id (1923) Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920) Studies on Hysteria (1895) Metapsychology Papers (1915) Three Essays on Sexuality (1905) On Narcissism (1914) 13 Studies on Hysteria Studies on Hysteria Breuer and Freud wrote Studies on Hysteria based on their use of hypnosis with patients with hysteria They argued hysteria results from emotions related to trauma which had not been discharged In normal circumstances such emotions would be abreacted, ie. discharged in conscious psychological reactions Therefore, the task of treatment was catharsis, i.e. release of emotion connected with a painful experience which had not been discharged 14 Interpretation of Dreams Interpretation of Dreams Oedipus Complex first described in The Interpretation of Dreams An unconscious sexual desire in a child (male) for the opposite sex parent Structure of the Mind (topographic theory) Libido Theory (drives) 15 Other contributions Other contributions On Narcissism Freud’s ideas are still relevant today (narcissistic personality disorder) The Ego and Id Job of Ego is to protect the mind form internal dangers and from the threat of a breakthrough into consciousness of unacceptable conflict­laden impulses 16 Development and Structure Development and Structure of Personality 17 Development of Personality Development of Personality Oral Phase Anal Phase Phallic Phase Latency Period Genital Phase 18 Oral Phase From birth to 18 months Libidinal gratification centers around the mouth Orientation is to take in pleasure and expel what is unpleasant The first drive present Always present throughout life (prominence changes) 19 Anal Phase Between 18 mos. & 3 years Libidinal gratification centers around retaining and passing feces Toilet training must be done carefully or could lead to shame Reaction formation may lead to obsessive compulsive meticulousness 20 Phallic Phase Ages 3 to 6 Ideas developed through Freud’s self analysis Libidinal gratification shifts to genitals; Penis = principle object of interest (for both sexes) Exhibitionistic and voyeuristic wishes are prominent Fear of castration develops Oedipal (Electra) Complex develops In healthy development child over time identifies with the same sex parent and complex is resolved 21 Latency Period Ages 6 to 12 Children can now be socialized Continues until puberty 22 Genital Phase Begins in puberty and continues throughout adulthood Libidinal gratification occurs through sexuality with another object 23 Contrasting Freud’s Developmental Stages to other Theorists Age Freud Erikson Piaget Psychosexual Psychosocial Cognitive 0­18 mos. Oral Trust vs. Mistrust Sensorimotor 18 mos. ­ 6 Anal (18 mos.–3 yrs); Phallic (3­6)*; Autonomy vs. Shame (2­4); Preoperational 6­12 *Oedipal & Electra Complex Latency 12 > Genital Initiative vs. Guilt (4­6) Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Role Confusion (12­ 18); Concrete Operations Formal Operations Intimacy vs. Isolation (18­25); Generativity vs. Stagnation (25­ 50) Integrity vs. Despair (50+) 24 Structure of Personality Structure of Personality from The Ego and the Id (1923) Id Instinctual Pressures (e.g. Aggression and Sexual) Ego Orients us Towards the External World (Mediates the Internal and External) Superego Individual’s Moral Voice 25 Structure of the Psyche Structure of the Psyche 26 ID EGO SUPER­EGO Freud’s Topographical Model Conscious Conscious Preconscious Unconscious pre­conscious unconscious pr re se d es 27 The Unconscious The Unconscious Clinical evidence for postulating the unconscious: Dreams Slips of the tongue Posthypnotic suggestions Material derived from free­association Material derived from projective techniques Symbolic content of psychotic symptoms NOTE: consciousness is only a thin slice of the total mind 28 Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms Are normal behaviors which operate on an unconscious level and tend to deny or distort inner or outer reality Help the individual cope with anxiety and prevent the ego from being overwhelmed Have adaptive value if they do not become a style of life to avoid facing reality 29 Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms (examples) Repression Projection Obsessional Thinking Compulsive Rituals Denial Avoidance 30 Process of Psychotherapy Process of Psychotherapy 31 Goals of Psychoanalysis Goals of Psychoanalysis Make the unconscious conscious Strengthen ego so behavior based reality rather than instinctual cravings or irrational guilt 32 The Psychoanalytic Situation Patient achieves change through critical self examination Four (45 minute) sessions a week for years Patient expresses thoughts and feelings without fear of judgment (free association) Analyst guides the process by encouraging in­ depth awareness of interconnections 33 Phases of Psychoanalysis 1. 2. 3. 4. Opening Development of Transference Working Through Resolution of the Transference 34 Opening Phase Lasts 3­6 months Patient reveals information at their pace “free association” Structured, formalized interview discouraged Analyst remains ultra aware of patient’s actions and words and notes issues of significance “evenly hovering attention” Analyst sketches out general outline of patient’s conflicts and resistances to 35 Development of Transference Major portion of therapeutic work Overlaps with “Working Through” phase Patient unconsciously reenacts childhood memories and fantasies and develops transference with the analyst Transference seen as a process in which repetition in action replaces event recollection By analyzing transference therapist assists patient in understanding how the past affects his interactions in the present 36 Working Through Multiple experiences of insight are needed to understand the nature of one’s conflicts Analysis of the transference facilitates memory recall Evidence builds to support which events really occurred versus which were fantasized Patient develops an in­depth understanding of how childhood events impacted them psychologically 37 Resolution of the Transference Termination phase of treatment Analyst focuses on assisting the patient in resolving unconscious neurotic attachment to the analyst Often symptom intensification occurs due to an unconscious attempt to continue the therapeutic relationship Ultimately treatment focus is redirected to the future 38 Classical Psychoanalysis Contemporary Psychodynamic Approaches Highly intensive Less intensive 3 or more sessions a week 1-2 sessions a week Patient lying down Patient sitting up Therapist outside of patient’s immediate visual awareness Therapist facing patient 39 Classical Psychoanalysis Contemporary Psychodynamic Approaches Training generally reserved for those with advanced training as a psychiatrist or psychologist Training generally offered to most mental health professionals Analyst has undergone personal analysis Prior personal mental health treatment optional for the therapist 40 Elements of Treatment in Contemporary Psychodynamic Approaches Therapeutic (supportive) relationship Expressive work: Exploration of the patient’s problems {deepens over time} Patient encouraged to say what comes to mind Therapist pays “evenly hovering attention” 41 Elements of Treatment (cont.) Multiple experiences of insight are needed to understand the nature of one’s conflicts Goal is personal transformation Patient learns how childhood events impacted them psychologically Patient develops ways to cope more effectively in the present 42 Termination Phase in Contemporary Psychodynamic Approaches Not planned, comes when it comes, i.e. when patient decides to stop goals are met Treatment focus is redirected to the future, i.e. how things will be after therapy ends Open door policy, i.e. patient can return at will 43 Appropriate Candidates for Psychoanalysis Motivated Openly disclosing Willing to self­scrutinize Able to accept parameters of psychoanalytic situation 44 Applications for Psychoanalysis Perhaps treatment of choice for personality disorders Best suited for “problems in living” reflected in stress and distress ♦ ♦ ♦ Applicable to family work, e.g. object relations family therapy Play therapy with children is based on dynamic concepts Can be paired with other forms of intervention (e.g. medications) 45 Freud’s Legacy Few continue to practice psychoanalysis in its originally conceived form However, most forms of therapy stem from some element of psychoanalytic theory or technique Contemporary psychodynamic approaches retain central principles of psychoanalysis but not the metapsychology 46 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/20/2011 for the course PSY 5531 taught by Professor Stewart during the Fall '11 term at Tarleton.

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