Chapter_5_Notes - SkeletalSystem Skeleton Greekmeaningdried...

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Skeletal System
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Skeleton Greek meaning “dried  up body” Functions: o Support o Protection o Movement o Storage o Blood cell formation
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Bones 206 bones Compact and spongy bone Long bones Short bones Flat bones Irregular bones
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Long Bones Gross Anatomy Diaphysis – compact  bone Periosteum – covering  diaphysis Epiphyses – ends Articular cartilage –  covers epiphyses Epiphyseal line –  remnant of plate Yellow marrow – fat  storage Red marrow – RBCs Bone markings (table 
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Long Bones Microscopic Anatomy Osteocytes  –  mature bone cells Lacunae  – cavities Lamellae  – circles  of lacunae Haversian  canals  –  cavity with blood  supply Osteon  – canal  and matrix rings Canaliculi  –  connect cells to  haversian canals
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Bone Formation, Growth  and Remodeling Ossification has two major phases o Hyaline model is covered with bone cells (osteoblasts) o Hyaline model digested away, making medullary cavity. Hyaline stays in the articular cartilages and epiphyseal plates Bone remodeling: Osteoclasts – activated by PTH to destroy bone and release calcium into the blood stream
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Homeostatic Imbalance Rickets: o Childhood disease in which bones fail  to calcify.  Lack of vitamin D or of  calcium.  Milk, bread and others are  fortified with Vit D.  Sun.
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Bone Fractures Simple fracture – bone breaks cleanly and does not  penetrate skin Compound fracture – broken bone ends penetrate skin
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Chapter_5_Notes - SkeletalSystem Skeleton Greekmeaningdried...

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