ireland3e_lecture_ch06

ireland3e_lecture_ch06 - 10/5/2011 Chapter 6 The...

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10/5/2011 1 Chapter 6 The Skeleto-Muscular System Movement Movement is a defining characteristic of animal life Humans move by applying tension to the bones and joints of the skeletal system tension is applied by the muscular system The skeletal and muscular systems work as a unit
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10/5/2011 2 The Skeleto-Muscular System The skeleto-muscular system works together to perform several key functions provide movement and locomotion manipulate the environment protect organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities help maintain homeostasis by generating internal heat maintain upright posture and bipedalism the skeleton produces blood cells (hematopoiesis), and stores and releases minerals such as calcium and phosphorus (used in muscular contraction) Movement Movement is possible because of the unique arrangement of muscle and bone All human skeletal muscles have a similar function and structure they contract, or get shorter, to produce movement muscles can relax to their original (resting) length or even elongate beyond that point
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10/5/2011 3 Bone and Muscle Both bone and muscle are living tissue separately neither is able to produce movement Muscular tissue contracts (gets shorter) when the muscle shortens, it pulls on the bone Bones are held together by joints, most of which permit movement between the bones pulling on one bone causes movement at the accompanying joint Bone Formation Bones are a form of connective tissue produced by immature bone cells called osteoblasts Ossification (bone formation) can be endochondral or intramembranous most bones are endochondral (formed within cartilage)
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10/5/2011 4 Bone Formation Bone Formation Bones grow longer and thicker growth occurs at the outer surface of the bone cells within the membrane that covers the bone, the periosteum, differentiate into osteoblasts and begin to add matrix to the exterior accumulating matrix entraps these osteoblasts, which mature into osteocytes, creating new bone tissue around the exterior of the bone
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10/5/2011 5 Bone Formation Intramembranous ossification forms the flat bones of the skull, clavicle, and mandible bone is laid down within embryonic connective tissue bones form deep in the dermis of the skin and thus are often called dermal bones Bone Tissue Bony tissue comes in two forms compact (dense) compact bone material usually occurs at the edges of the bone and is composed of many individual osteons the central canal of the osteon houses the blood and nerve supply for the bone tissue spongy spongy bone is less organized than compact bone and lacks osteons instead, spongy bone has trabeculae, or struts, that form in response to stress
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10/5/2011 6 Bone Tissue Bone In a typical bone, dense compact bone surrounds the organ and spongy bone comprises the inner support The ends of the bones, or epiphyses, include the epiphyseal plate, an area of cartilage where long bones continue to grow during childhood and
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ireland3e_lecture_ch06 - 10/5/2011 Chapter 6 The...

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