ireland3e_respiratory_ch13_fall11

ireland3e_respiratory_ch13_fall11 - Chapter 13 The...

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10/24/2011 1 Chapter 13 The Respiratory System: Movement of Air The Respiratory System Human life depends on the integrated functioning of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems because neither system, by itself, can supply what we need to survive The respiratory system delivers oxygen expels carbon dioxide filters incoming air maintains blood pH helps control fluid and thermal homeostasis produces sound
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10/24/2011 2 The Respiratory System The Upper Respiratory Tract
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10/24/2011 3 The Upper Respiratory Tract The nose has many functions filtering is a vital function of the nose because inhaled particles would seriously inhibit airflow in the lower respiratory tract coarse hairs in the nostrils filter out larger particles the mucus of the nasal passages further filters incoming air by trapping small particles the epithelium in the upper respiratory tract is pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium the nasal epithelium is studded with chemosensory neurons which provide the sense of smell The Upper Respiratory Tract The larynx divides the upper and lower respiratory tracts it is composed entirely of cartilage it holds the respiratory tract open it guards the lower tract against particulate matter it produces the sounds of speech
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10/24/2011 4 The Larynx The larynx is composed of hyaline cartilage thyroid cartilage the thyroid cartilage in men is usually larger than in female testosterone stimulates the growth of cartilage in the larynx, thickening the vocal folds; “Adam's apple” refers to the larger laryngeal cartilages in men the larynx is attached to the tongue muscles when the tongue pushes against the roof of the mouth in preparation for swallowing, the larynx moves up toward the epiglottis the epiglottis it is a leaflike flap of cartilage on the superior (upper) aspect of the larynx it covers the opening to the lower respiratory tract to prevent food from entering the larynx is called the “voice box” because it is the location of the vocal cords The main function of the lower tract is to move inhaled air to the respiratory membrane Physiologically, the upper tract and the first portion of the lower tract make up the conducting zone of the respiratory system it conducts air from the atmosphere to the respiratory zone deeper in the body, where the actual exchange of gases takes place the conducting zone includes all the structures of the upper respiratory tract, as well as the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles The respiratory zone lies deep within the lungs and includes only the respiratory bronchioles and the alveoli The Lower Respiratory Tract
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10/24/2011 5 The Lower Respiratory Tract The Trachea The trachea connects the larynx to the bronchii The trachea is approximately 2.5 centimeters in diameter, and is composed of muscular walls embedded with 16 to 20 “C” -shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage these cartilage “C” rings support the trachea so it does not
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ireland3e_respiratory_ch13_fall11 - Chapter 13 The...

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