torpig - Botnet Terminology How to Steal a Botnet and What...

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How to Steal a Botnet and What Can Happen When You Do Security Group Department of Computer Science University of California, Santa Barbara [email protected] Torpig Takeover CS177 2011 Richard A. Kemmerer UC Santa Barbara 2 Botnet Terminology Bot an application that performs some action or set of actions on behalf of a remote controller installed on a victim machine (zombie) modular (plug in your functionality/exploit/payload) Botnet network of infected machines controlled by a malicious entity Control channel required to send commands to bots and obtain results and status messages usually via IRC, HTTP, HTTPs, or Peer-to-Peer Bot Herder aka botmaster or controller owns control channel, sends commands to botnet army motivations are usually power or money UC Santa Barbara 3 Torpig Trojan horse distributed via the Mebroot “malware platform” injects itself into 29 different applications as DLL steals sensitive information (passwords, HTTP POST data) HTTP injection for phishing uses “encrypted” HTTP as C&C protocol – uses domain flux to locate C&C server Mebroot spreads via drive-by downloads sophisticated rootkit (overwrites master boot record) UC Santa Barbara 4 Innocent victim Torpig C&C “Hacked” web servers Injection server Mebroot C&C “Drive-By Download” server Torpig Torpig Torpig: Behind the scenes : Behind the scenes : Behind the scenes Commands + torpi g STOLEN DATA Meb roo t do wnlo ad UC Santa Barbara 5 Torpig HTML Injection Domains of interest (~300) stored in configuration file When domain of interest visited Torpig issues request to injection server server specifies a trigger page on target domain and a URL on injection server to be visited when user visits trigger page When user visits the trigger page Torpig requests injection URL from injection server Torpig injects the returned content into the user’s browser Content is usually html phishing form that asks for sensitive data reproduces look and style of target web site UC Santa Barbara 6 Example Phishing Page
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UC Santa Barbara 7 Example Phishing Page UC Santa Barbara 8 Domain Flux Taking down a single bot has little effect on botmaster C&C servers are vulnerable to take down if you use a static IP address, people will block or remove host if you use a DNS name, people will block or remove domain name Domain flux idea is to have bots periodically generate new C&C domain names often, use local date (system time) as input botmaster needs to register one of these domains and respond properly so that bots recognize valid C&C server defenders must register all domains to take down botnet UC Santa Barbara 9
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