205textnotes06 - Structure of the neural tissue The nervous...

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Structure of the neural tissue : The nervous system consists of nerve cells and glial cells. NERVE CELLS The basic unit of the nervous system is the NERVE CELL or NEURON (Fig 8-2) . In humans, the brain contains 5x10 11 neurons. Although neurons can be classified into many different types, as you will learn in more detail in Kin 306, they share common features. Neurons share 3 common characteristics with all living cells: 1. They produce energy via the oxidation of nutrients, 2. They are self-sustaining, 3. They are able to repair themselves. In addition, neurons possess at least 2 other specific functions: 1. the transmission of electrical impulses, 2. the capacity to synthesize and liberate a special class of chemical messengers, the neurotransmitters. Neurons are classified as being one of the following: (Fig. 8-3) 1. afferent or sensory neurons: neurons that convey sensory information from the periphery to the central nervous system. 2.
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