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205textnotes11 - (Figure 8-23) : a. open ion channels, that...

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Chapter 8: Neurons: cellular and network properties E. Synapses ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1. two different kinds of synapse: o electrical synapse gap junction, pass electrical signals o chemical synapse, pass information carried by neurotransmitters 2. Seven different kinds of neurotransmitters, five major types shown in Table 8-4 : o acetylcholine o amines: Norepinephrine o amino acids: Glutamate, GABA o purine: o gases: Nitric Oxide o polypeptides o lipids 2. neurotransmitters (Figure 8-20, 8-21) : a. are synthesized in cell body or axon terminal b. are stored: in synaptic vesicles c. are released: by exocytosis d. combine: with receptors on the target cell 2. after the cell response, neurotransmitter action is terminated by (Figure 8-22, 8-24) : a. re-uptake into axon terminal b. diffusing away from synapse c. enzymatic degradation, eg. ACh by AchE (Figure 8-22) 5. neurontransmitters can
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Unformatted text preview: (Figure 8-23) : a. open ion channels, that create fast synaptic potentials which last only a few milliseconds a. bind to G-protein-linked receptors, that activate second messenger systems and create low synaptic potentials ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter 8: Neurons: cellular and network properties F. Integration of Neural Information Transfer ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1. Neural pathways may involve many neurons simultaneously. a. May not be a one-to-one event: divergence or convergence (Figure 8-25) b. EPSP's and IPSP's sum at the trigger zone: spatial (Figure 8-27) and temporal (Figure 8-28) c. Axon terminals may end at the soma (Figure 8-26, 8-29a) or the axon terminal (Figure 8-29b) of a nother neuron. This allows for post- and pre-synaptic inhibition....
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