205textnotes16 - Referred pain Pain from deep organs is...

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2. thermal stimuli, 3. chemical stimuli. The gating theory of pain modulation (Figure 10-12) . Sensitization-activation of nociceptors: hyperalgesia: Primary hyperalgesia and Secondary hyperalgesia. Hyperalgesia results from the sensitization of nociceptors, as a direct result of the tissue damage and as a secondary effect due to the release of a variety of chemical mediators. Local effect of a trauma : release of K + and bradykinin --> prostaglandins --> nociceptors Note: what is the effect of Aspirin and non-steroid anti-inflammatory analgesics? Spreading effect of the trauma : The effect of substance P. Analgesia: aspirin, morphine, stimulation of specific pathways of the central nervous system, enkephalins or endorphins.
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Unformatted text preview: Referred pain: Pain from deep organs is often sensed as pain on the surface of the body (Figure 10-13) . ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------SENSORY PHYSIOLOGY: Smell and Taste, Ear, and Eye----------------------------------------------------------------------------------C. Chemoreception: Smell and Taste . Olfaction (smell): Figure 10-14 Taste: Figure 10-15 Taste transduction Figure 10-16 D. Hearing : Chap. 10, pp. 280-287. Audible range: 20 to 20 000 Hz. Structure of the Ear: Figures 10-17 (outer, middle, inner) Sound waves: Figure 10-18 Detailed diagram of Cochlea: Figure 10-19 Transmission of sound: Figure 10-20...
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