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Unformatted text preview: CK-12 Chemistry - Basic Kevin Pyatt, Ph.D. Donald Calbreath, Ph.D. Say Thanks to the Authors Click (No sign in required) To access a customizable version of this book, as well as other interactive content, visit AUTHORS Kevin Pyatt, Ph.D. Donald Calbreath, Ph.D. EDITORS Donald Calbreath, Ph.D. Max Helix CK-12 Foundation is a non-profit organization with a mission to reduce the cost of textbook materials for the K-12 market both in the U.S. and worldwide. Using an open-content, web-based collaborative model termed the FlexBook®, CK-12 intends to pioneer the generation and distribution of high-quality educational content that will serve both as core text as well as provide an adaptive environment for learning, powered through the FlexBook Platform®. 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Printed: August 1, 2014 iii Contents Contents 1 Introduction to Chemistry 1.1 What is Chemistry? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 The Scientific Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 11 17 2 Matter and Change 2.1 Properties of Matter . . 2.2 Classification of Matter 2.3 Changes in Matter . . . 2.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . 18 19 23 31 38 3 Measurement 3.1 Units of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Unit Conversions, Error, and Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 40 50 62 4 Atomic Structure 4.1 Evolution of the Atomic Model 4.2 Structure of the Atom . . . . . 4.3 Isotopes and Atomic Mass . . 4.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 64 69 77 83 5 6 7 8 iv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrons in Atoms 5.1 Properties of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 The Bohr and Quantum Mechanical Models of the Atom 5.3 Electron Arrangement in Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 85 91 96 110 The Periodic Table 6.1 History of the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table 6.3 Trends in the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 112 118 127 141 Chemical Nomenclature 7.1 Ionic Compounds . . . 7.2 Molecular Compounds 7.3 Acids and Bases . . . . 7.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 143 152 157 162 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ionic and Metallic Bonding 163 8.1 Ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 8.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 8.3 8.4 9 Contents Metals and Metallic Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Covalent Bonding 9.1 Lewis Electron Dot Structures . . . . 9.2 Molecular Geometry . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Polarity in Chemical Bonds . . . . . . 9.4 Intermolecular Forces . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Hybridization and Molecular Orbitals . 9.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 186 191 200 204 210 221 . . . . 223 224 230 235 243 11 Chemical Reactions 11.1 Chemical Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Types of Chemical Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 245 254 263 12 Stoichiometry 12.1 Mole Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Stoichiometric Calculations . . . . . 12.3 Limiting Reactant and Percent Yield 12.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 265 269 272 281 10 The Mole 10.1 The Mole Concept . . . . . . 10.2 Mass, Volume, and the Mole 10.3 Chemical Formulas . . . . . 10.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 States of Matter 13.1 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases 13.2 Liquids and Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3 Changes of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 283 287 295 301 14 The Properties of Gases 14.1 Gas Properties . 14.2 Gas Laws . . . 14.3 Gas Mixtures . 14.4 References . . . 15 Water 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 303 309 318 324 Properties of Water . . . Aqueous Solutions . . . . Colloids and Suspensions References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 326 335 341 346 . . . . 347 348 361 368 376 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Solutions 16.1 Solubility . . . . . . . 16.2 Solution Concentration 16.3 Colligative Properties . 16.4 References . . . . . . . 17 Thermochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 v Contents 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 Heat Flow . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy and Phase Transitions Hess’s Law . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 385 390 395 400 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 403 413 420 425 19 Chemical Equilibrium 19.1 The Nature of Chemical Equilibrium . 19.2 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 19.3 Factors Affecting Chemical Equilibria 19.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 427 435 442 449 18 Kinetics 18.1 Rates of Reactions . . 18.2 Rate Laws . . . . . . 18.3 Reaction Mechanisms 18.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Entropy and Free Energy 20.1 Entropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2 Spontaneous Reactions and Free Energy 20.3 Free Energy and Equilibrium . . . . . . 20.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 451 460 465 471 21 Acids and Bases 21.1 Acid-Base Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2 The pH Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 Acid and Base Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.4 Acid-Base Neutralization Reactions and Titrations 21.5 Salt Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 473 478 484 490 497 501 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Oxidation Reduction Reactions 22.1 Nature of Oxidation and Reduction 22.2 Oxidation Numbers . . . . . . . . 22.3 Balancing Redox Equations . . . . 22.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 503 509 517 522 23 Electrochemistry 23.1 Electrochemical Cells 23.2 Cell Potential . . . . 23.3 Electrolysis . . . . . 23.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 524 534 544 550 24 Nuclear Chemistry 24.1 Nuclear Radiation . . . . . . 24.2 Half-Lives . . . . . . . . . . 24.3 Fission and Fusion . . . . . . 24.4 Applications of Radioactivity 24.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 552 559 563 569 574 . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Organic Chemistry 575 25.1 Hydrocarbons – The Backbone of Organic Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576 vi 25.2 25.3 25.4 Contents Functional Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583 Organic Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 26 Biochemistry 26.1 Carbohydrates . . . . . . . 26.2 Amino Acids and Proteins . 26.3 Lipids . . . . . . . . . . . 26.4 Nucleic Acids . . . . . . . 26.5 References . . . . . . . . . 27 Glossary 27.1 A. 27.2 B . 27.3 C . 27.4 D. 27.5 E . 27.6 F . 27.7 G. 27.8 H. 27.9 I . 27.10 K . 27.11 L . 27.12 M 27.13 N . 27.14 O . 27.15 P . 27.16 R . 27.17 R . 27.18 S . 27.19 T . 27.20 U . 27.21 V . 27.22 W 27.23 Z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 604 609 618 624 632 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633 634 637 639 642 644 646 648 649 651 653 654 656 658 659 660 663 664 665 667 668 669 670 671 vii Chapter 1. Introduction to Chemistry C HAPTER 1 Introduction to Chemistry Chapter Outline 1.1 W HAT IS C HEMISTRY ? 1.2 T HE S CIENTIFIC M ETHOD 1.3 R EFERENCES Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by the body’s inability to regulate glucose levels. Glucose (a component of table sugar) is needed to provide biochemical energy for all the cells of the body. When this process is disrupted, the body begins to break down fat and protein to provide the needed energy, which can eventually lead to death. Diabetes is mediated by a protein called insulin. A key piece of our understanding of diabetes came when Frederick Sanger, a British biochemist, carried out experiments to determine the structure of the insulin molecule. Sanger (shown in the opening image) used basic chemistry techniques and reactions and took twelve years to complete his research. Today, automated instruments based on his approach can perform the same analysis in a matter of days. Sanger was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1958 for his insulin research. The chemical processes that won Sanger the Nobel Prize is pictured on the right in the opening image. In this chapter, we will look at the history of chemistry, see the many areas of our lives that are touched by chemistry, and develop a basic understanding of what is involved in the process of scientific discovery. Sanger image: Courtesy o f the National Institutes o f Health. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frederick_Sanger2. j pg. Public Domain. Molecule: User:Sponk/Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sanger_peptide_end−group_analysis.svg. Public Domain. 1 1.1. What is Chemistry? 1.1 What is Chemistry? Lesson Objectives • Define the term “chemistry.” • Describe the activities of alchemists and how they contributed to the modern science of chemistry. • List some of the key scientists from the early history of chemistry along with their primary contributions to the field. • List various modern items that have been developed through the study of chemistry. Lesson Vocabulary • chemistry: The science of the properties, reaction, composition, and structures of matter. • matter: Anything that has mass and takes up space. • alchemist: A practitioner of the Medieval science of alchemy, which aimed mainly to transform everyday metals into gold. • philosopher’s stone: A substance that could cause the transmutation of lead into gold. A Brief History of Chemistry What is Chemistry? If we look up the word “ chemistry” in the dictionary, we’ll find something like this: “The science of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter, especially of atomic and molecular systems” (Free Online Dictionary). This definition is accurate, but it does not give us a good picture of the scope of chemistry or any practical aspects of the field. Chemistry touches every area of our lives. The medicines we take, the food we eat, the clothes we wear –all these materials and more are, in some way or another, a product of chemistry. Later on in this chapter, we will look in detail at some of the ways that chemistry contributes to our lives. Where ...
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