Chapter 2 Notes and Observations

Chapter 2 Notes and Observations - Chapter 2 Notes and...

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Chapter 2 Notes and Observations Development - Changes in behavior, emotions, and intelligence that occur from conception to death - Growth and decay - In order to teach a child, you need to know the levels of development - Broken into three processes which are all related o Ex. When a child smiles after a parents touch--- biological (physical touch), cognitive (understand intentional acts), socioemotional (smiling- emotions) o Cognitive: changes in thinking, intelligence, and language o Biological: physical changes in body (height/weight) and underlies brain development o Socioemotional: changes in relationships, emotions, and personalities Developmental Periods - Infancy (0-24 months): extreme dependence on adults, just beginning language development, symbolic thought, sensorimotor coordination, and social learning - Early childhood (2-5 yrs): preschool years, more self-sufficient, develop school readiness skills (follow directions and identify letters), spend time with peers - Middle and Late childhood (6-11 yrs): elementary school years, master the fundamentals of reading, writing, and math skills, achievement becomes a more central theme, self-control - Adolescence (12-21 yrs): transition from childhood to adulthood, rapid physical changes, independence/own identity, mind becomes more abstract, logical, and idealistic Developmental Issues - Nature vs. Nurture: debate whether development is more based on biological factors (nature) or the environment influences aspects (nurture) o Need both for development o “nature proponents emphasize the influence of tendencies that are genetically wired into humans” (32) - Continuity and discontinuity: debate to which development is gradual and continuous or in stages o Qualitative: discontinuous o Quantitative: continuous - Early-later experience: debate to whether early development or later development is more fundamental o “some developmentalists argue that, unless an infant experiences warm nurturing care during the first year, their development will never be quite optimal” (33) o “later experience advocates argue that children are malleable throughout development and that later sensitive caregiving is just as important as earlier sensitive caregiving” (33) - Teachers need to recognize that all students are not at the same learning level o Splintered Development: learning is uneven Ex: if a student is excellent at math, they may not necessarily be good at English
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Cognitive Development - Brain has plasticity: ability to change
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Chapter 2 Notes and Observations - Chapter 2 Notes and...

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