Chapter 3 Notes and Observations - Reale 1 Chapter 3 Notes...

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Reale 1 Chapter 3 Notes and Observations I. Brofenbrenner’s Ecological Theory A. Focuses on the social contexts in which children live and the people who influence their development B. Consists of 5 environmental stages i. Microsystem: a setting where someone spends a large majority of time and within these settings, one engages in many direct interactions ii. Mesosystem: links microsystems iii. Exosystem: an outside source (school and park advisory boards) has a strong role in the individuals life (determining the quality of parks and schools), but the individual is not directly involved iv. Macrosystem: Involves culture (attitudes and ideologies) v. Chronosystem: historical occurrences that affect development C. Criticisms i. Gives too little attention to biological and cognitive factors ii. It does not have a step-by-step process for each system--- vague II. Erikson’s Life-Span Development Theory A. Presents a developmental view of people’s live in 8 stages i. Each stage consists of a developmental task and a positive or negative outcome ii. Criticism: stages are too rigid and not everyone undergoes this B. Trust vs. Mistrust (first year of life) i. Positive: a feeling of comfort and minimal fear ii. Negative: mistrust towards caregiver due to negative treatment C. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (late infancy through toddler years) i. Positive: Realize their behavior is their own and assert their independence ii. Negative: If they are restrained too much and punished, they develop a sense of shame and doubt D. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5) i. Positive: if they are challenged they develop initiative ii. Negative: develop feelings of guilt if they see themselves as irresponsible or are made to feel too anxious E. Industry vs. Inferiority (6- puberty/early adolescence) i. Positive: they direct their energy toward mastering skills and knowledge ii. Negative: may develop a sense of inferiority, unproductiveness, and incompetence F. Identity vs. Identity Confusion (adolescent years) i. Positive: Adolescents try to find out who they are, what they are all about, and where they are going in life. Need to explore ii. Negative: If they are unable to explore, they fail to develop a healthy identity/future path G. Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood- 20s and 30s) i. Positive: form positive relationships with others ii. Negative: fail to form an intimate relationship with partner or friend and become isolated
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Reale 2 H. Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood- 40s and 50s) i. Positive: transmitting something positive o the next generation (generativity) ii. Negative: developing the feeling of having done nothing to help the next generation (stagnation) I. Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood- 60s to death) i. Positive: review their lives and reflect on what they have done and have no regrets and a sense of integrity ii. Negative: Look back and have regrets and believe their life was mostly negative III. Parenting Styles A. Parents play an important role in supporting and stimulating children’s academic
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This note was uploaded on 12/26/2011 for the course ED PSY 014 taught by Professor Kaychick during the Fall '11 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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Chapter 3 Notes and Observations - Reale 1 Chapter 3 Notes...

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