{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Chapter 3 Notes and Observations

Chapter 3 Notes and Observations - Reale 1 Chapter 3 Notes...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Reale 1 Chapter 3 Notes and Observations I. Brofenbrenner’s Ecological Theory A. Focuses on the social contexts in which children live and the people who influence their development B. Consists of 5 environmental stages i. Microsystem: a setting where someone spends a large majority of time and within these settings, one engages in many direct interactions ii. Mesosystem: links microsystems iii. Exosystem: an outside source (school and park advisory boards) has a strong role in the individuals life (determining the quality of parks and schools), but the individual is not directly involved iv. Macrosystem: Involves culture (attitudes and ideologies) v. Chronosystem: historical occurrences that affect development C. Criticisms i. Gives too little attention to biological and cognitive factors ii. It does not have a step-by-step process for each system--- vague II. Erikson’s Life-Span Development Theory A. Presents a developmental view of people’s live in 8 stages i. Each stage consists of a developmental task and a positive or negative outcome ii. Criticism: stages are too rigid and not everyone undergoes this B. Trust vs. Mistrust (first year of life) i. Positive: a feeling of comfort and minimal fear ii. Negative: mistrust towards caregiver due to negative treatment C. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (late infancy through toddler years) i. Positive: Realize their behavior is their own and assert their independence ii. Negative: If they are restrained too much and punished, they develop a sense of shame and doubt D. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5) i. Positive: if they are challenged they develop initiative ii. Negative: develop feelings of guilt if they see themselves as irresponsible or are made to feel too anxious E. Industry vs. Inferiority (6- puberty/early adolescence) i. Positive: they direct their energy toward mastering skills and knowledge ii. Negative: may develop a sense of inferiority, unproductiveness, and incompetence F. Identity vs. Identity Confusion (adolescent years) i. Positive: Adolescents try to find out who they are, what they are all about, and where they are going in life. Need to explore ii. Negative: If they are unable to explore, they fail to develop a healthy identity/future path G. Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood- 20s and 30s) i. Positive: form positive relationships with others ii. Negative: fail to form an intimate relationship with partner or friend and become isolated
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Reale 2 H. Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood- 40s and 50s) i. Positive: transmitting something positive o the next generation (generativity) ii. Negative: developing the feeling of having done nothing to help the next generation (stagnation) I. Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood- 60s to death) i. Positive: review their lives and reflect on what they have done and have no regrets and a sense of integrity ii. Negative: Look back and have regrets and believe their life was mostly negative III. Parenting Styles A. Parents play an important role in supporting and stimulating children’s academic achievement and attitudes toward school B. Authoritarian
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern