Chapter 4 Notes and Observations

Chapter 4 Notes and Observations - Reale 1 Chapter 4 Notes...

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Reale 1 Chapter 4 Notes and Observations I. Intelligence A. Ability to solve problems; the capacity to adapt and learn from experience B. Includes characteristics such as creativity and interpersonal experience C. Individual Differences: stable, consistent ways I which peoples are different from one another i. Generally have been measured by intelligence tests designed to tell whether a person can reason better than others D. Very abstract and broad--- variety of ways to define it E. Cannot be directly measured but it is evaluated, studied, and compared through 2 common tests—given on an individual basis F. Stanford-Binet Tests i. Mental Age (MA): developed by Binet; an individuals level of mental development relative to others ii. Intelligence Quotient (IQ): a persons MA divided by chronological Age (CA) and multiplied by 100 iii. Normal distribution: symmetrical, with a majority of the scores falling in the middle of the possible range of scores and few appearing toward the extremes of the range iv. Newest edition analyzes the 5 aspects of cognitive development: fluid reasoning (abstract thinking), knowledge (conceptual information), quantitative reasoning (math skills), visual-spatial reasoning (understanding visual forms and spatial layouts), and working memory (recall of new info). Also analyzes the 2 aspects of intelligence: verbal and nonverbal intelligence G. Wechsler Scale i. Provides an overall IQ score, scores on a number of sublets, and yields several composite indexes H. Group Intelligence Tests i. Lorge Thorndike Intelligence Test and Otis-Lennon School Ability Test ii. More convenient and economical iii. Drawbacks: examiner cannot establish rapport or determine the students level of anxiety II. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory A. Analytical Intelligence: the ability to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast B. Creative Intelligence: ability to create, design, invent, originate, and imagine C. Practical Intelligence: ability to use, apply, implement, and put into place D. Students with different triacrhic patterns look differently in school E. Few tasks are purely analytical, creative, or practical. most require a combination of all three F. It is important for classroom instruction to give students opportunities to learn through all three types III. Gardner’s Eight Frames of Mind A. Many specific types of intelligence, or frames of mind
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Reale 2 i. Verbal skills, mathematical skills, spatial skills, bodily-kinesthetic skills, musical skills, intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, and naturalistic skills (116) ii. Each form can be destroyed by a different pattern of brain damage, that each involves unique cognitive skills, and that each shows up in unique ways in both the gifted and the mentally challenged who excel in a particular field B. Existential intelligence: debate whether or not it should become a ninth field i. Involves concern and reasoning about meaning in life C. Pg 116-117: Misuses of the approach and the use of technology
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Chapter 4 Notes and Observations - Reale 1 Chapter 4 Notes...

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