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Chapter 6 Notes and Observations

Chapter 6 Notes and Observations - Reale 1 Chapter 6 Notes...

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Reale 1 Chapter 6 Notes and Observations I. Learning Disabilities A. Has difficulty in learning that involves understanding or using spoken or written language, and the difficulty can appear in listening, thinking, reading writing, spelling, and mathematics. B. Learning problem cannot be primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, mental challenges, emotional disorders, or due to environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. C. More common in boys and is due to referral bias: boys are more likely to be referred by teachers for treatment because of their behavior D. Most learning disabilities are lifelong i. Many grow up to lead normal lives and engage in productive work E. Children are more likely to show poor academic performance throughout their schooling, high dropout rates, and poor employment and post secondary education records F. Most common areas of difficulty are reading, writing, and mathematics i. Dyslexia: a severe impairment in the ability to read and spell and difficulty with phonological skills (being able to understand how sounds and letters match up to make words and problems with comprehension) ii. Dysgraphia: difficulty in handwriting 1. These children may write very slowly, their writing is illegible, make numerous spelling errors, and they are unable to match up sounds and letters iii. Dyscalculia: developmental arithmetic disorder that involves difficulty in math comprehension 1. Often have cognitive and neuropsychological deficits including poor performance in working memory, visual perception, and visuospatial abilities. G. Causes and Intervention Strategies i. Tend to run in families with one parent being so affected ii. Likely caused by problems during prenatal development or delivery 1. more prevalent in LBW babies iii. Unlikely that learning diabilities reside in a single, a specific brain location--- more likely due to problems in integrating information from multiple brain regions or subtle difficulties in brain structures and functions II. ADHD A. A disability in which children consistently show inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsivity i. Inattentive children have difficulty focusing on any one thing and get bored within a few minutes ii. Hyperactive children show high levels of physical activity iii. Impulsive children have difficulty curbing their reactions and don’t do a good job of thinking before they act B. Trouble attending to the teacher’s instructions and is easily distracted C. Diagnosis and Developmental Status i. More common in boys
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Reale 2 ii. Not supposed to be diagnosed by school teams because ADHD is a disorder that appears in the classification of psychiatric disorders with specific diagnostic criteria iii. ADHD is difficult to differentiate from other childhood disorders D. Causes i. Some children likely inherit a tendency to develop ADHD from parents ii. Develop ADHD due to damage in brain during pre or postnatal development iii. Cigarette exposure, high drinking levels and alcoholism
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Chapter 6 Notes and Observations - Reale 1 Chapter 6 Notes...

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