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Chapter 7 Notes and Observations

Chapter 7 Notes and Observations - Reale 1 Chapter 7 Notes...

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Reale 1 Chapter 7 Notes and Observations I. Learning A. Relatively permanent influence on behavior, knowledge, and thinking skills that come about through experience B. Not everything is learned--- we inherit some capacities C. Scope of learning is broad i. Involves academic and nonacademic behaviors ii. Occurs everywhere children experience the world D. Behavioral Approach i. Emphasizes the importance of children making connections between experiences and behavior ii. Behaviorism: the view that behavior should be explained by observable experiences, not by mental processes iii. Behavior is everything that we do, both verbal and nonverbal iv. Mental processes: thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us experiences but cannot be observed by others v. Classical and Operant conditioning are two behavioral views 1. Emphasize associative learning: consists of learning that two events are connected or associated E. Cognitive Approach i. Cognition means “thought” ii. Social cognition approach: emphasizes how behavior, environment, and person factors interact to influence learning iii. Information-processing approach: focus on how children process info through attention, memory, thinking, and other cognitive processes iv. Cognitive constructivist approach: emphasizes the child’s cognitive construction of knowledge and understanding v. Social constructivist approach: focuses on collaboration with others to produce knowledge and understanding vi. Students are more likely to learn in optimal ways in appropriate learning environments II. Classical Conditioning A. Type of learning in which an organism learns to connect or associate stimuli so that a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response B. Excels in explaining hoe neutral stimuli become associated with unlearned, involuntary responses C. Especially helpful in understanding students anxieties and fears, but not as effective in explaining voluntary behaviors D. Unconditioned Stimulus: a stimulus that automatically produces a response without any prior learning E. Unconditioned Response: an unlearned response that is automatically elicited by the UCS F. Conditioned Stimulus: a previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a conditioned response after being associated with the UCS
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Reale 2 G. Conditioned Response: a learned response to the CS that occurs after the UCS-CS pairing H. Generalization: involves the tendency of a new stimulus similar to the original CS to produce a similar response I. Discrimination: occurs when the organism responds to certain stimuli but not others J. Extinction: involves the weakening of the CR in the absence of the UCS K.
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