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Chapter 8 Notes and Observations

Chapter 8 Notes and Observations - Reale 1 Chapter 8 Notes...

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Reale 1 Chapter 8 Notes and Observations I. Information, Memory, and Thinking A. Information processing approach: emphasizes that children manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it B. Children develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing info, which allows them to acquire increasingly complex knowledge and skills C. Cognitive psych: label for approaches that sought to explain behavior by examining mental processes II. Cognitive Resources A. As children grow and mature, and as they experience the world, their information processing abilities increase, influenced by concurrent increases in both capacity and speed of processing B. Cognitive resources: proposed to have an important influence on memory and problem solving C. An increase in capacity as well as speed improves processing of information D. How fast children process info often influences what they can do with that info E. How fast children can articulate a series of words affects how many words they can store and remember F. Fast processing is linked with good performance on cognitive links G. Controversy whether the increase in processing speed is due to experience or biological maturation i. Experience plays a more important role III. Mechanics of Change A. Encoding: process by which info gets stored in memory i. Changes in children’s cognitive skills depend on increased skill at encoding relevant info and ignoring irrelevant info B. Automaticity: ability to process info with little or no effort i. Practice allows children to encode increasing amounts of info automatically ii. Does not require conscious effort iii. Complete tasks more quickly and handle more than one task at a time C. Strategy construction: creation of new procedures for processing info D. Children’s info processing is characterized by self-modification IV. Attention A. Focusing of mental resources B. Selective Attention: focusing on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring irrelevant info C. Divided attention: concentrating on more than one activity at the same time i. Multitasking: expands the info people attend to and forces the brain to share processing resources, but can also distract attention from what might be most important at the moment D. Sustained attention: ability to maintain attention over an extended period of time i. Critical on succeeding tasks
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Reale 2 ii. Improves from 5 to 6 years to 11 to 12 years E. Executive attention: action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, dealing with novel or difficult situations i. Increased executive attention supports the rapid increase in effortful control required to effectively engage in complex academic tasks F. Sustained and Executive attention are important aspects of cognitive development V. Developmental Changes A. Important changes in attention occur during childhood i. Length of time increases B. Preschool children’s ability to control and sustain their attention is related to school readiness C.
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Chapter 8 Notes and Observations - Reale 1 Chapter 8 Notes...

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