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Study Guide Exam 1 - Educational Psychology 14 Study Guide...

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Educational Psychology 14 Study Guide: Exam 1 Chapter 1: Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching Educational Psychology: specializes in understanding teaching and learning in educational settings. - Teachers and students correlation and how they learn Teachers (teaching) Students Learning - William James: emphasized the importance of observing teaching and learning in classrooms for improving education - John Dewey: viewed children as active learners o Emphasized that children learn best by doing, education should focus on whole child and emphasize the child’s adaptation to the environment, believed that all children deserve a competent education - E.L. Thorndike: focused on assessment and measurement o Promoted the scientific underpinnings of learning Components of Good Teaching - Knowledgeable, critical thinking and problem solving skills, communication skills, good at decision making (500 a day), self-regulation, apply educational research, good at reflection, time management, classroom management, good at instructional presentation, instructional monitoring, give instructional feedback Chapter 2: Cognitive and Language Development Cognitive Theory: focuses on the construction of the intellect through thought and action, and answers the question: How do humans come to know? Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development - Piaget was a cognitive stage theorist who decided that all humans organize information and adapt to information through the processes of assimilation and accommodation. He studied his own children. - Children construct their own knowledge by interacting with their own environment o Children learn through by playing and interacting (constructivism) - Schemas: actions or mental representations that organize knowledge. o Cognitive structures, reflexes, add to and modify schemas until death - 2 types of schemas: Behavioral and mental o Behavioral: physical activities, characterize infancy o Mental: cognitive activities, develop in childhood - Assimilation and Accommodation: explains how children use and adapt their schemas o Assimilation: incorporate new information; adds to existing schema o Accommodation: adjust schemas to fit new information and experiences; develops a new schema to fit environment (ex. porpoise) o Always take a child to higher ground
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- Organization: cognitively organize their experiences - Equilibration and Stages of Development: explains how children switch from one stage of thought to another o Disequilibrium: cognitive conflict Piagetian Stages (Discontinuous Theory) - Sensorimotor (birth to 2 yrs): infants develop an understanding of the world through their senses and their motor skills (reaching, touching), and towards the end: object permanence; begin to interact with their environment; can begin to problem solve o Object Permanence: a baby realizes people and objects still exist even if they are out of sight (8-9 months) - Preoperational Stage (2-7 yrs): egocentric and intuitive rather than logical; language really takes off (often talk to themselves); begin to view the world symbolically o
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