Final Exam Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide - Reale 1 Final Exam Study Guide...

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Reale 1 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 13: Study of Landforms Earth's Crust - 8 miles deep - Extremely important/ very difficult to assess/ very little knowledge of it - Very small portion of Earth's diameter - Outermost shell - Mixture of different rock types - Metamorphic and igneous Rocks - Thickness o Oceanic crust (4 miles) o Continental crust (40 miles) - <1% of Earth/s volume and .4% Earth's mass Earth's Mantle - Thickest part of interior - Very large layer - Lithosphere o 40-60 miles deep o Solid rock/rigid o Uppermost mantle - Asthenosphere o 200 miles o Molten layer (partially melted rock) o “Plastic”, jello-y, gooey rock - 84% Earth's Volume and 66% Earth's Mass Lower Mantle - Directly below mantle (asthenosphere) - Part molten, part solid Core - Made up of certain minerals (Iron, Nickel, and Silicates) - 3100 miles deep - 15% of Earth's Volume and 32% of mass - Outer Core o Liquid o Extremely important for volcanoes o Earth's magnetic field o Continuous circulation that creates magnetism Creating Earth's magnetic field Compass points towards Earth's magnetic N pole Earth is a giant magnet Doesn't point directly towards geographic N pole Magnetic inclination: difference between magnetic N pole and true North pole Inner Core - Solid
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Reale 2 - Innermost portion of Earth Types of Rocks - Composed of mineral material (oxides, sulfides, sulfates, carbonates, halides) - Sometimes just one kind of mineral, but usually several - Rocks occur in the lithosphere - All rock types are interchangeable with each other - Rock Cycle o Starts as igneous (lava/magma), wears away forming sedimentary rock, turns into metamorphic rock - Igneous Rocks o Cooling of molten rock o Formed from solidification of molten rock o Magma: molten rock beneath the surface o Lava: molten rock that reaches the surface o Often have holes because gases are emitted (bubbling out) o Texture Slow cooling: coarse-grained Fast-cooling: fine-grained Sedimentary Rocks - Found on Earth's surface o Earth/rocks disintegrate into sediments (weathering) o Wash downstream Deposits accumulate on bottom of stream Adhere to each other due to heat and pressure These new sediments form sedimentary rocks - Strata o Horizontal layers Coal - Specific to this region - Formed in warm, stagnant swamps 300 million years ago o Swamp must be void of Oxygen (prevents decay) o Allows plant debris to persist and pile up in mushy heaps called peat - Dead plant remains must fall into swamp - For peat to transform into coal, sediment must eventually cover the peat, compressing it down into Earth's crust - Over millions of years, peat is shoved down deeper with rock crushing it from above and geothermal heat roasting it from above - Pressure cooked peat deposits creating coal beds - Several Types of Coal o More pressure/heat = better coal o Lignite o (Sub) bituminous o Anthracite Best type of coal Darkest, hardest, oldest
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Reale 3 Burns very clean Metamorphic Rock - Igneous or sedimentary rock transformed through heat and pressure
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Final Exam Study Guide - Reale 1 Final Exam Study Guide...

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