Geog 10 Exam 1 Study Guide

# Geog 10 Exam 1 Study Guide - Reale 1 Geog 10 Exam 1 Study...

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Reale 1 Geog 10 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Environmental Spheres - Lithosphere: solid rock materials at or near Earth’s surface (earthquakes) - Hydrosphere: non-living mixture of liquids o All water on Earth (solid, liquid, and gas) o Important! Because water is 70% of Earth - Atmosphere: non-living mixture of gases (air) o Weather occurs (tornadoes and hurricanes) o 20 miles up o Most important layer: holds everything and filters UV rays - Biosphere: all living organisms o We would not survive without lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere Earth’s Geographic Grid - Locates points on Earth’s surface - Latitude and Longitude o North Pole (90°) o South Pole (90°) o Equator (0° latitude): starting point for N and S directions o Prime Meridian (Greenwich England): starting point for E and W directions - Lines E-W directions o Parallel o Equator is a line of latitude o Measure location N and S of Equator - Equator o Starting point is 0° o 0°-90° N and S to each pole o Breaks Earth into hemispheres o Must specify N or S of equator when giving latitude Latitude Characteristics - Runs N and S (Think of a ladder) - Each degree is approximately 69 miles or 111 km - 60°; ½ the equator (1/2 the size) - You can measure location and distance using a latitude coordinate - Significant Lines of Latitude o Tropic of Cancer: 23 ½° N o Tropic of Capricorn 23 ½° S Geographic Zones of Latitude - Low Latitudes: equator - 30° N or S - Midlatitudes: 30° - 60° N or S (This is us!) - High Latitudes: greater than 60° N or S

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Reale 2 - Equatorial: few degrees of Equator - Tropical: between 23 ½° N or S - Subtropical: slightly poleward at the tropics (25°-30°) - Polar: few degrees of N and S poles Longitude (Meridians) - Runs North to South - Measures West to East o 0°-180° E or W of Prime Meridian o Prime Meridian (0°) is the starting point - Coverage at poles (meet up) - International Date Line (180°) - Characteristics o Widest at Equator o Distance decreases toward poles Earth-Sun Relationship - Need to know latitude and longitude to know the relationship of Earth and sun - Earth’s daily rotation is not constant o Once every 24 hrs o Direction is west to east o Speed of rotation: spins faster at the equator and slowly decreases when moving towards poles Bulges at equator and flattens at poles - Annual revolution around sun o Every 365 ¼ days Earth rotates around Sun o Leap year every 4 yrs o Earth’s axis: 23 ½° tilt o Path of Revolution: elliptical (July 4: farthest from sun and January 3: closest) Effects of Earth’s Revolution around the Sun - Wind and ocean currents o Wind deflects right in N hemisphere and left in S hemisphere - Gravitational pull is generated o Our oceans feel it o How tides are generated - Light and darkness (night and day) o Influence our weather and climate - Seasonal Patterns o Biggest Effect! o
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## This note was uploaded on 12/26/2011 for the course GEOG 010 taught by Professor Bookshar,randyd during the Fall '07 term at Penn State.

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Geog 10 Exam 1 Study Guide - Reale 1 Geog 10 Exam 1 Study...

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