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Unformatted text preview: 芸芸芸芸芸芸芸芸 QQ 747883097 TL 028 8194 2202 2011 芸芸芸芸芸芸芸芸芸芸 芸芸芸芸 CET6 芸芸芸芸芸芸芸芸芸 芸芸芸芸芸芸 芸芸芸芸芸芸芸芸芸芸芸芸芸 教教教教教 教教教教教 word 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 芸芸芸芸 芸芸芸芸芸芸芸芸 Unit 1 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage: We sometimes think humans are uniquely vulnerable to anxiety, but stress seems to affect the immune defenses of lower animals too. In one experiment, for example, behavioral immunologist( 教教教教 ) Mark Laudenslager, at the University of Denver, gave mild electric shocks to 24 rats. Half the animals could switch off the current by turning a wheel in their enclosure, while the other half could not. The rats in the two groups were paired so that each time one rat turned the wheel it protected both itself and its helpless partner from the shock. Laudenslager found that the immune response was depressed below normal in the helpless rats but not in those that could turn off the electricity. What he has demonstrated, he believes, is that lack of control over an event, not the experience itself, is what weakens the immune system. Other researchers agree. Jay Weiss, a psychologist at Duke University School of Medicine, has shown that animals who are allowed to control unpleasant stimuli don't develop sleep disturbances or changes in brain chemistry typical of stressed rats. But if the animals are confronted with situations they have no control over, they later behave passively when faced with experiences they can control. Such findings reinforce psychologists' suspicions that the experience or perception of helplessness is one of the most harmful factors in depression. One of the most startling examples of how the mind can alter the immune response was discovered by chance. In 1975 psychologist Robert Ader at the University of Rochester School of Medicine conditioned( 教教教教教教教 ) mice to avoid saccharin( 教教 ) by simultaneously feeding them the sweetener and injecting them with a drug that while suppressing their immune systems caused 2 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 stomach upsets. Associating the saccharin with the stomach pains, the mice quickly learned to avoid the sweetener. In order to extinguish this dislike for the sweetener, Ader reexposed the animals to saccharin, this time without the drug, and was astonished to find that those mice that had received the highest amounts of sweetener during their earlier conditioning died. He could only speculate that he had so successfully conditioned the rats that saccharin alone now served to weaken their immune systems enough to kill them. 21. Laudenslager's experiment showed that the immune system of those rats who could turn off the electricity . A) was altered C) was weakened B) was strengthened D) was not affected 22. According to the passage, the experience of helplessness causes rats to . A) turn off the electricity B) try to control unpleasant stimuli C) become abnormally suspicious D) behave passively in controllable situations 23. The reason why the mice in Ader's experiment avoided saccharin was that. A) they associated it with stomachaches B) it affected their immune systems C) it led to stomach pains D) they disliked its taste 24. The passage tells us that the most probable reason for the death of the mice in Ader's experiment was that . A) the sweetener was poisonous to them B) their immune systems had been altered by the mind C) they had been weakened psychologically by the saccharin D) they had taken too much sweetener during earlier conditioning 25. It can be concluded from the passage that the immune systems of animals . A) can be altered by electric shocks B) can be weakened by conditioning C) can be suppressed by drug injections D) can be affected by frequent doses of saccharin Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage: The destruction of our natural resources and contamination of our food supply continue to occur, largely because of the extreme difficulty in affixing ( 教……教教 ) legal responsibility on those who continue to treat our environment with reckless abandon ( 教教 ). Attempts to prevent pollution by legislation, economic incentives and friendly persuasion have been met by lawsuits, personal 3 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 and industrial denial and long delays—not only in accepting responsibility, but more importantly, in doing something about it. It seems that only when government decides it can afford tax incentives or production sacrifices is there any initiative for change. Where is industry's and our recognition that protecting mankind's great treasure is the single most important responsibility? If ever there will be time for environmental health professionals to come to the frontlines and provide leadership to solve environmental problems, that time is now. We are being asked, and, in fact, the public is demanding that we take positive action. It is our responsibility as professionals in environmental health to make the difference. Yes, the ecologists, the environmental activists and the conservationists serve to communicate, stimulate thinking and promote behavioral change. However, it is those of us who are paid to make the decisions to develop, improve and enforce environmental standards, I submit, who must lead the charge. We must recognize that environmental health issues do not stop at city limits, county lines, state or even federal boundaries. We can no longer afford to be tunnel-visioned in our approach. We must visualize issues from every perspective to make the objective decisions. We must express our views clearly to prevent media distortion and public confusion. I believe we have a three-part mission for the present. First, we must continue to press for improvements in the quality of life that people can make for themselves. Second, we must investigate and understand the link between environment and health. Third, we must be able to communicate technical information in a form that citizens can understand. If we can accomplish these three goals in this decade, maybe we can finally stop environmental degradation, and not merely hold it back. We will then be able to spend pollution dollars truly on prevention rather than on bandages. 26. We can infer from the first two paragraphs that the industrialists disregard environmental protection chiefly because . A) it is difficult for them to take effective measures B) time has not yet come for them to put due emphasis on it C) they are reluctant to sacrifice their own economic interests D) they are unaware of the consequences of what they are doing 27. The main task now facing ecologists, environmental activists and conservationists is . A) to arouse public awareness of the importance of environmental protection B) to prevent pollution by legislation, economic incentives and persuasion C) to improve the quality of life by enforcing environmental standards D) to take radical measures to control environmental pollution 28. The word “tunnel-visioned”(Line 2, Para.4) most probably means “ A) narrow-minded B) short-sighted ”. C) able to see only one aspect D) blind to the facts 4 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 29. Which of the following, according to the author, should play the leading role in the solution of environmental problems? A) The cooperation of ecologists, environmental activists and conservationists. B) The efforts of environmental health professionals. C) The industry's understanding and support. D) Legislation and government intervention. 30. Which of the following is true according to the last paragraph? A) More money should be spent in order to stop pollution. B) Environmental degradation will be stopped by the end of this decade. C) Ordinary citizens have no access to technical information on pollution. D) Efforts should be exerted on pollution prevention instead of on remedial measures. Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage: British universities, groaning under the burden of a huge increase in student numbers, are warning that the tradition of a free education is at risk. The universities have threatened to impose an admission fee on students to plug a gap in revenue if the government does not act to improve their finances and scrap some public spending cutbacks. The government responded to the universities' threat by setting up the most fundamental review of higher education for a generation, under a non-party troubleshooter( 教 教 教 ), Sir Ron Dearing. One in three school-leavers enters higher education, five times the number when the last review took place thirty years ago. Everyone agrees a system that is feeling the strain after rapid expansion needs a lot more money—but there is little hope of getting it from the taxpayer and not much scope for attracting more finance from business. Most colleges believe students should contribute to tuition costs, something that is common elsewhere in the world but would mark a revolutionary change in Britain. Universities want the government to introduce a loan scheme for tuition fees and have suspended their own threatened action for now. They await Dearing's advice, hoping it will not be too late—some are already reported to be in financial difficulty. As the century nears its end, the whole concept of what a university should be is under the microscope. Experts ponder how much they can use computers instead of classrooms, talk of the need for lifelong learning and refer to students as “consumers”. The Confederation( 教 教 ) of British Industry, the key employers' organization, wants even more expansion in higher education to help fight competition on world markets from booming Asian economies. But the government has doubts about more expansion. The Times newspaper agrees, complaining that quality has suffered as student numbers soared, with close tutorial supervision giving way to “mass production methods more typical of European universities.” 5 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 31. The chief concern of British universities is . A) how to tackle their present financial difficulty B) how to improve their educational technology C) how to expand the enrollment to meet the needs of enterprises D) how to put an end to the current tendency of quality deterioration 32. We can learn from the passage that in Britain . A) higher education is provided free of charge B) universities are mainly funded by businesses C) the government pays dearly for its financial policy D) students are ready to accept loan schemes for tuition 33. What was the percentage of high school graduates admitted to universities in Britain thirty years ago? A) About 15%. C) Below 10%. B) 20% or so. D) Above 30%. 34. It can be inferred from the passage that . A) British employers demand an expansion in enrollment at the expense of quality B) the best way out for British universities is to follow their European counterparts C) the British government will be forced to increase its spending on higher education D) British students will probably have to pay for their higher education in the near future 35. Which of the following is the viewpoint of the Times newspaper? A) British universities should expand their enrollment to meet the needs of industry. B) Expansion in enrollment is bound to affect the quality of British higher education. C) British universities should help fight competition on world markets. D) European universities can better meet the needs of the modern world. Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage: There's a simple premise behind what Larry Myers does for a living: If you can smell it, you can find it. Myers is the founder of Auburn University's Institute for Biological Detection Systems, the main task of which is to chase the ultimate in detection devices—an artificial nose. For now, the subject of their research is little more than a stack of gleaming chips tucked away in a laboratory drawer. But soon, such a tool could be hanging from the belts of police, arson(教教) investigators and food-safety inspectors. The technology that they are working on would suggest quite reasonably that, within three to five years, we'll have some workable sensors ready to use. Such devices might find wide use in places that attract terrorists. Police could detect drugs, bodies and bombs hidden in cars, while 6 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 food inspectors could easily test food and water for contamination. The implications for revolutionary advances in public safety and the food industry are astonishing. But so, too, are the possibilities for abuse: Such machines could determine whether a woman is ovulating (教教), without a physical exam—or even her knowledge. One of the traditional protectors of American liberty is that it has been impossible to search everyone. That's getting not to be the case. Artificial biosensors created at Auburn work totally differently from anything ever seen before. Aromas can, for example, is a desktop machine based on a bank of chips sensitive to specific chemicals that evaporate into the air. As air is sucked into the machine, chemicals pass over the sensor surfaces and produce changes in the electrical current flowing through them. Those current changes are logged into a computer that sorts out odors based on their electrical signatures. Myers says they expect to load a single fingernail-size chip with thousands of odor receptors(教教教)教 enough to create a sensor that's nearly as sensitive as a dog's nose. 36. Which of the following is within the capacity of the artificial nose being developed? A) Monitoring food processing. B) Performing physical examinations. C) Locating places which attract terrorists. D) Detecting drugs and water contamination. 37. A potential problem which might be caused by the use of an artificial nose is . A) a hazard to physical health B) negligence of public safety C) a threat to individual privacy D) an abuse of personal freedom 38. The word “logged”(Line 5, Para. 7) most probably means “ A) preset B) simulated ”. C) entered D) processed 39. To produce artificial noses for practical use, it is essential . A) to find chemicals that can alter the electrical current passing through B) to develop microchips with thousands of odor receptors C) to design a computer program to sort out smells D) to invent chips sensitive to various chemicals 40. The author's attitude towards Larry Myers' work is . A) approving B) overenthusiastic C)cautious D) suspicious 7 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Unit 2 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage: In the world of entertainment, TV talk shows have undoubtedly flooded every inch of space on daytime television. And anyone who watches them regularly knows that each one varies in style and format. But no two shows are more profoundly opposite in content, while at the same time standing out above the rest, than the Jerry Springer and the Oprah Winfrey shows. Jerry Springer could easily be considered the king of “ trash talk(教教)”. The topics on his show are as shocking as shocking can be. For example, the show takes the ever-common talk show themes of love, sex, cheating, guilt, hate, conflict and morality to a different level. Clearly, the Jerry Springer show is a display and exploitation of society's moral catastrophes ( 教教 ), yet people are willing to eat up the intriguing predicaments (教教) of other people's lives. Like Jerry Springer, Oprah Winfrey takes TV talk show to its extreme, but Oprah goes in the opposite direction. The show focuses on the improvement of society and an individual's quality of life. Topics range from teaching your children responsibility, managing your work weekly, to getting to know your neighbors. Compared to Oprah, the Jerry Springer show looks like poisonous waste being dumped on society. Jerry ends every show with a “final word”. He makes a small speech that sums up the entire moral of the show. Hopefully, this is the part where most people will learn something very valuable. Clear as it is, the Oprah show is not for everyone. The show's main target audience are middle-class Americans. Most of these people have the time, money, and stability to deal with life's tougher problems. Jerry Springer, on the other hand, has more of an association with the young adults of society. These are 18-to 21-year-olds whose main troubles in life involve love, relationship, sex, money and peers. They are the ones who see some value and lessons to be learned underneath the show's exploitation. 8 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 While the two shows are as different as night and day, both have ruled the talk show circuit for many years now. Each one caters to a different audience while both have a strong following from large groups of fans. Ironically, both could also be considered pioneers in the talk show world. 21. Compared with other TV talk shows, both the Jerry Springer and the Oprah Winfrey are . A) more family-oriented B) unusually popular C) more profound D) relatively formal 22. Though the social problems Jerry Springer talks about appear distasteful, the audience . A) remain fascinated by them B) are ready to face up to them C) remain indifferent to them D) are willing to get involved in them 23. Which of the following is likely to be a topic of the Oprah Winfrey show? A) A new type of robot. B) Racist hatred. C) Family budget planning. D) Street violence. 24. Despite their different approaches, the two talk shows are both A) ironical B) sensitive . C) instructive D) cynical 25. We can learn from the passage that the two talk shows . A) have monopolized the talk show circuit B) exploit the weaknesses in human nature C) appear at different times of the day D) are targeted at different audiences Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage: To understand the marketing concept, it is only necessary to understand the difference between marketing and selling. Not too many years ago, most industries concentrated primarily on the efficient production of goods, and then relied on “persuasive salesmanship” to move as much of these goods as possible. Such production and selling focuses on the needs of the seller to produce goods and then convert them into money. Marketing, on the other hand, focuses on the wants of consumers. It begins with first analyzing the preferences and demands of consumers and then producing goods that will satisfy 9 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 them. This eye-on-the-consumer approach is known as the marketing concept, which simply means that instead of trying to sell whatever is easiest to produce or buy for resale, the makers and dealers first endeavor to find out what the consumer wants to buy and then go about making it available for purchase. This concept does not imply that business is benevolent( 教教 ) or that consumer satisfaction is given priority over profit in a company. There are always two sides to every business transaction —the firm and the customer—and each must be satisfied before trade occurs. Successful merchants and producers, however, recognize that the surest route to profit is through understanding and catering to customers. A striking example of the importance of catering to the consumer presented itself in mid_1985, when Coca Cola changed the flavor of its drink. The nonacceptance of the new flavor by a significant portion of the public brought about a prompt restoration of the Classic Coke, which was then marketed alongside the new. King Customer ruled! 26.The marketing concept discussed in the passage is, in essence, A) the practice of turning goods into money B) making goods available for purchase C) the customer-centred approach D) a form of persuasive salesmanship 27. What was the main concern of industrialists before the marketing concept was widely accepted? A) The needs of the market. B) The efficiency of production. C) The satisfaction of the user. D) The preferences of the dealer. 28. According to the passage, “to move as much of these goods as possible” (Lines 3_4, Para. 1) means “ ”. A) to sell the largest possible amount of good B) to transport goods as efficiently as possible C) to dispose of these goods in large quantities D) to redesign these goods for large-scale production 29. What does the restoration of the Classic Coke best illustrate? A) Traditional goods have a stronger appeal to the majority of people. B) It takes time for a new product to be accepted by the public. C) Consumers with conservative tastes are often difficult to please. D) Products must be designed to suit the taste of the consumer. 30. In discussing the marketing concept, the author focuses on . A) its main characteristic B) its social impact 10 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 C) its possible consequence D) its theoretical basis Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage: Conventional wisdom about conflict seems pretty much cut and dried. Too little conflict breeds apathy( 教教 ) and stagnation( 教 教 ). Too much conflict leads to divisiveness( 教教 ) and hostility. Moderate levels of conflict, however, can spark creativity and motivate people in a healthy and competitive way. Recent research by Professor Charles R. Schwenk, however, suggests that the optimal level of conflict may be more complex to determine than these simple generalizations. He studied perceptions of conflict among a sample of executives. Some of the executives worked for profitseeking organizations and others for not-for-profit organizations. Somewhat surprisingly, Schwenk found that opinions about conflict varied systematically as a function of the type of organization. Specifically, managers in not-for-profit organizations strongly believed that conflict was beneficial to their organizations and that it promoted higher quality decision making than might be achieved in the absence of conflict. Managers of for-profit organizations saw a different picture. They believed that conflict generally was damaging and usually led to poor-quality decision making in their organizations. Schwenk interpreted these results in terms of the criteria for effective decision making suggested by the executives. In the profit-seeking organizations, decision-making effectiveness was most often assessed in financial terms. The executives believed that consensus rather than conflict enhanced financial indicators. In the not-for-profit organizations, decision-making effectiveness was defined from the perspective of satisfying constituents. Given the complexities and ambiguities associated with satisfying many diverse constituents executives perceived that conflict led to more considered and acceptable decisions. 31. In the eyes of the author, conventional opinion on conflict is A) wrong B) oversimplified . C) misleading D) unclear 32. Professor Charles R. Schwenk's research shows . A) the advantages and disadvantages of conflict B) the real value of conflict C) the difficulty in determining the optimal level of conflict D) the complexity of defining the roles of conflict 33. We can learn from Schwenk's research that . A) a person's view of conflict is influenced by the purpose of his organization B) conflict is necessary for managers of for-profit organizations 11 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 C) different people resolve conflicts in different ways D) it is impossible for people to avoid conflict 34. The passage suggests that in for-profit organization . A) there is no end of conflict B) expression of different opinions is encouraged C) decisions must be justifiable D) success lies in general agreement 35. People working in a not-for-profit organization . A) seem to be difficult to satisfy B) are free to express diverse opinions C) are less effective in making decisions D) find it easier to reach agreement Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage: Imagine eating everything delicious you want—with none of the fat. That would be great, wouldn't it? New “fake fat” products appeared on store shelves in the United States recently, but not everyone is happy about it. Makers of the products, which contain a compound called olestra, say food manufacturers can now eliminate fat from certain foods. Critics, however, say the new compound can rob the body of essential vitamins and nutrients (教教教) and can also cause unpleasant side effects in some people. So it's up to consumers to decide whether the new fat-free products taste good enough to keep eating. Chemists discovered olestra in the late 1960s, when they were searching for a fat that could be digested by infants more easily. Instead of finding the desired fat, the researchers created a fat that can't be digested at all. Normally, special chemicals in the intestines ( 教 )“grab” molecules of regular fat and break them down so they can be used by the body. A molecule of regular fat is made up of three molecules of substances called fatty acids. The fatty acids are absorbed by the intestines and bring with them the essential vitamins A, D, E, and K. When fat molecules are present in the intestines with any of those vitamins, the vitamins attach to the molecules and are carried into the bloodstream. Olestra, which is made from six to eight molecules of fatty acids, is too large for the intestines to absorb. It just slides through the intestines without being broken down. Manufacturers say it's that ability to slide unchanged through the intestines that makes olestra so valuable as a fat substitute. It provides consumers with the taste of regular fat without any bad effects on the body. But critics say olestra can prevent vitamins A, D, E, and K from being absorbed. It can also prevent the absorption of carotenoids( 教教教教教 ) 教 compounds that may reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease, etc. 12 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Manufacturers are adding vitamins A, D, E, and K as well as carotenoids to their products now. Even so, some nutritionists are still concerned that people might eat unlimited amounts of food made with the fat substitute without worrying about how many calories they are consuming. 36. We learn from the passage that olestra is a substance that . A) contains plenty of nutrients B) renders foods calorie-free while retaining their vitamins C) makes foods easily digestible D) makes foods fat-free while keeping them delicious 37. The result of the search for an easily digestible fat turned out to be . A) commercially useless B) just as anticipated C) somewhat controversial D) quite unexpected 38. Olestra is different from ordinary fats in that . A) it passes through the intestines without being absorbed B) it facilitates the absorption of vitamins by the body C) it helps reduce the incidence of heart disease D) it prevents excessive intake of vitamins 39. What is a possible negative effect of olestra according to some critics? A) It may impair the digestive system. B) It may affect the overall fat intake. C) It may increase the risk of cancer. D) It may spoil the consumers' appetite. 40. Why are nutritionists concerned about adding vitamins to olestra? A) It may lead to the over-consumption of vitamins. B) People may be induced to eat more than is necessary. C) The function of the intestines may be weakened. D) It may trigger a new wave of fake food production. Unit 3 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding 13 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage: In the 1920s demand for American farm products fell, as European countries began to recover from World War Ⅰ and instituted austerity(教教 ) programs to reduce their imports. The result was a sharp drop in farm prices. This period was more disastrous for farmers than earlier times had been, because farmers were no longer self-sufficient. They were paying for machinery, seed, and fertilizer, and they were also buying consumer goods. The prices of the items farmers bought remained constant, while prices they received for their products fell. These developments were made worse by the Great Depression, which began in 1929 and extended throughout the 1930s. In 1929, under President Herbert Hoover, the Federal Farm Board was organized. It established the principle of direct interference with supply and demand, and it represented the first national commitment to provide greater economic stability for farmers. President Hoover's successor attached even more importance to this problem. One of the first measures proposed by President Franklin D.Roosevelt when he took office in 1933 was the Agricultural Adjustment Act, which was subsequently passed by Congress. This law gave the Secretary of Agriculture the power to reduce production through voluntary agreements with farmers who were paid to take their land out of use. A deliberate scarcity of farm products was planned in an effort to raise prices. This law was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court on the grounds that general taxes were being collected to pay one special group of people. However, new laws were passed immediately that achieved the same result ofresting soil and providing flood-control measures, but which were based on the principle of soil conservation. The Roosevelt Administration believed that rebuilding the nation's soil was in the national interest and was not simply a plan to help farmers at the expense of other citizens. Later the government guaranteed loans to farmers so that they could buy farm machinery, hybrid( 教 教 ) grain, and fertilizers. 21. What brought about the decline in the demand for American farm products? A) The impact of the Great Depression. B) The shrinking of overseas markets. C) The destruction caused by the First World War. D) The increased exports of European countries. 22. The chief concern of the American government in the area of agriculturein the 1920s was . A) to increase farm production B) to establish agricultural laws C) to prevent farmers from going bankrupt D) to promote the mechanization of agriculture 23. The Agricultural Adjustment Act encouraged American farmers to . 14 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 A) reduce their scale of production B) make full use of their land C) adjust the prices of their farm products D) be self-sufficient in agricultural production 24. The Supreme Court rejected the Agricultural Adjustment Act because it believed that the Act . A) might cause greater scarcity of farm products B) didn't give the Secretary of Agriculture enough power C) would benefit neither the government nor the farmers D) benefited one group of citizens at the expense of others 25. It was claimed that the new laws passed during the Roosevelt Administration were aimed at . A) reducing the cost of farming B) conserving soil in the long-term interest of the nation C) lowering the burden of farmers D) helping farmers without shifting the burden onto other taxpayers Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage: In the 1950s, the pioneers of artificial intelligence(AI) predicted that, by the end of this century, computers would be conversing with us at work and robots would be performing our housework. But as useful as computers are, they're nowhere close to achieving anything remotely resembling these early aspirations for humanlike behavior. Never mind something as complex as conversation: the most powerful computers struggle to reliably recognize the shape of an object, the most elementary of tasks for a ten-month-old kid. A growing group of AI researchers think they know where the field went wrong. The problem, the scientists say, is that AI has been trying to separate the highest, most abstract levels of thought, like language and mathematics, and to duplicate them with logical, step-by-step programs. A new movement in AI, on the other hand, takes a closer look at the more roundabout way in which nature came up with intelligence. Many of these researchers study evolution and natural adaptation instead of formal logic and conventional computer programs. Rather than digital computers and transistors, some want to work with brain cells and proteins. The results of these early efforts are as promising as they are peculiar, and the new nature-based AI movement is slowly but surely moving to the forefront of the field. Imitating the brain's neural ( 教教教 )network is a huge step in the right direction, says computer scientist and biophysicist Michael Conrad, but it still misses an important aspect of natural intelligence. “people tend to treat the brain as if it were made up of color-coded transistors,” he explains. “But it's not simply a clever network of switches. There are lots of important things going on inside the brain cells themselves.” Specifically, Conrad believes that many of the brain’s 15 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 capabilities stem from the pattern-recognition proficiency of the individual molecules that make up each brain cell. The best way to build an artificially intelligent device, he claims, would be to build it around the same sort of molecular skills. Right now, the notion that conventional computers and software are fundamentally incapable of matching the processes that take place in the brain remains controversial. But if it proves true, then the efforts of Conrad and his fellow AI rebels could turn out to be the only game in town. 26. The author says that the powerful computers of today . A) are capable of reliably recognizing the shape of an object B) are close to exhibiting humanlike behavior C) are not very different in their performance from those of the 50's D) still cannot communicate with people in a human language 27. The new trend in artificial intelligence research stems from . A) the shift of the focus of study on to the recognition of the shapes of objects B) the belief that human intelligence cannot be duplicated with logical, step-by-step programs C) the aspirations of scientists to duplicate the intelligence of a ten-month-old child D) the efforts made by scientists in the study of the similarities between transistors and brain cells 28. Conrad and his group of AI researchers have been making enormous efforts to . A) find a roundabout way to design powerful computers B) build a computer using a clever network of switches C) find out how intelligence developed in nature D) separate the highest and most abstract levels of thought 29. What's the author's opinion about the new AI movement? A) It has created a sensation among artificial intelligence researchers but will soon die out. B) It's a breakthrough in duplicating human thought processes. C) It's more like a peculiar game rather than a real scientific effort. D) It may prove to be in the right direction though nobody is sure of its future prospects. 30. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the phrase “the only game in town” (line 3, Para.4)? A) The only approach to building an artificially intelligent computer. B) The only way for them to win a prize in artificial intelligence research. C) The only area worth studying in computer science. D) The only game they would like to play in town. Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage: Cars account for half the oil consumed in the U.S., about half the urban pollution and one fourth the greenhouse(教教) gases. They take a similar toll of (教教) resources in other industrial nations 16 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 and in the cities of the developing world. As vehicle use continues to increase in the coming decade, the U.S. and other countries will have to deal with these issues or else face unacceptable economic, health-related and political costs. It is unlikely that oil prices will remain at their current low level or that other nations will accept a large and growing U.S. contribution to global climatic change. Policymakers and industry have four options: reduce vehicle use, increase the efficiency and reduce the emissions of conventional gasoline-powered vehicles, switch to less harmful fuels, or find less polluting driving systems. The last of these—in particular the introduction of vehicles powered by electricity—is ultimately the only sustainable option. The other alternatives are attractive in theory but in practice are either impractical or offer only marginal improvements. For example, reduced vehicle use could solve traffic problems and a host of social and environmental problems, but evidence from around the world suggests that it is very difficult to make people give up their cars to any significant extent. In the U.S., mass-transit ridership and carpooling(教教教教) have declined since World War Ⅱ. Even in western Europe, with fuel prices averaging more than 1 a liter(about 4 a gallon) and with easily accessible mass transit and dense populations, cars still account for 80 percent of all passenger travel. Improved energy efficiency is also appealing, but automotive fuel economy has barely made any progress in 10 years. Alternative fuels such as natural gas, burned in internal-combustion engines, could be introduced at relatively low cost, but they would lead to only marginal reductions in pollution and greenhouse emissions(especially because oil companies are already spending billions of dollars every year to do develop less pollution types of gasoline.) 31. From the passage we know that the increased use of cars will . A) consume half of the oil produced in the world B) have serious consequences for the well-being of all nations C) widen the gap between the developed and developing countries D) impose an intolerable economic burden on residents of large cities 32. The U.S. has to deal with the problems arising from vehicle use because . A) most Americans are reluctant to switch to public transportation systems B) the present level of oil prices is considered unacceptable C) other countries will protest its increasing greenhouse emissions D) it should take a lead in conserving natural resources 33. Which of the following is the best solution to the problems mentioned in the passage? A) The designing of highly efficient car engines. B) A reduction of vehicle use in cities. C) The development of electric cars. D) The use of less polluting fuels. 17 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 34. Which of the following is practical but only makes a marginal contribution to solving the problem of greenhouse emissions? A) The use of fuels other than gasoline. B) Improved energy efficiency. C) The introduction of less polluting driving systems. D) Reducing car use by carpooling. 35. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage? A) The decline of public transportation accounts for increased car use in western Europe. B) Cars are popular in western Europe even though fuel prices are fairly high. C) The reduction of vehicle use is the only sustainable option in densely populated western Europe. D) Western European oil companies cannot sustain the cost of developing new-type fuels. Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage: Reebok executives do not like to hear stylish athletic shoes called “footwear for yuppies(教教教教教 教教教教教教教 )”. They contend that Reebok shoes appeal to diverse market segments. Especially now that the company offers basketball and children's shoes for the under_18 set and walking shoes for older customers not interested in aerobics ( 教 教 教 ) or running. The executives also point out that through recent acquisitions they have added hiking boots, dress and casual shoes, and highperformance athletic footwear to their product lines, all of which should attract new and varied groups of customers. Still, despite its emphasis on new markets, Reebok plans few changes in the unmarked(教教教教教教 教 )retailing network that helped push sales to $1 billion annually, ahead of all other sports shoe marketers. Reebok shoes, which are priced from $27 to $85, will continue to be sold only in better specialty, sporting goods, and department stores, in accordance with the company's view that consumers judge the quality of the brand by the quality of its distribution. In the past few years, the Massachusetts-based company has imposed limits on the number of its distributors(and the number of shoes supplied to stores), partly out of necessity. At times the unexpected demand for Reeboks exceeded supply, and the company could barely keep up with orders from the dealers it already had. These fulfillment problems seem to be under control now, but the company is still selective about its distributors. At present, Reebok shoes are available in about five thousand retail stores in the United States. Reebok has already anticipated that walking shoes will be the next fitness-related craze replacing aerobics shoes the same way its brightly colored, soft leather exercise footwear replaced conventional running shoes. Through product diversification and careful market research, Reebok 18 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 hopes to avoid the distribution problems Nike came across several years ago, when Nike misjudged the strength of the aerobics shoe craze and was forced to unload huge inventories of running shoes through discount stores. 36. One reason why Reebok's managerial personnel don't like their shoes to be called “footwear for yuppies” is that . A) they believe that their shoes are popular with people of different age groups B) new production lines have been added to produce inexpensive shoes C) “yuppies” usually evokes a negative image D) the term makes people think of prohibitive prices 37. Reebok's view that “consumers judge the quality of the brand by the quality of its distribution” (Line 5, para. 2) implies that . A) the quality of a brand is measured by the service quality of the store selling it B) the quality of a product determines the quality of its distributors C) the popularity of a brand is determined by the stores that sell it. D) consumers believe that first-rate products are only sold by high-quality stores 38.Reebok once had to limit the number of its distributors because . A) its supply of products fell short of demand B) too many distributors would cut into its profits C) the reduction of distributors could increase its share of the market D) it wanted to enhance consumer confidence in its products 39. Although the Reebok Company has solved the problem of fulfilling its orders, it . A) does not want to further expand its retailing network B) still limits the number of shoes supplied to stores C) is still particular about who sells its products D) still carefully chooses the manufacturers of its products 40. What lesson has Reebok learned from Nike's distribution problems? A) A company should not sell its high quality shoes in discount stores. B) A company should not limit its distribution network. C) A company should do follow-up surveys of its products. D) A company should correctly evaluate the impact of a new craze on the market. 19 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Unit 4 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage. Birds that are literally half-asleep─with one brain hemisphere alert and the other sleeping─control which side of the brain remains awake, according to a new study of sleeping ducks. Earlier studies have documented half-brain sleep in a wide range of birds. The brain hemispheres take turns sinking into the sleep stage characterized by slow brain waves. The eye controlled by the sleeping hemisphere keeps shut, while the wakeful hemisphere’s eye stays open and alert. Birds also can sleep with both hemispheres resting at once. Decades of studies of bird flocks led researchers to predict extra alertness in the more vulnerable, end-of-the-row sleepers. Sure enough, the end birds tended to watch carefully on the side away from their companions. Ducks in the inner spots showed no preference for gaze direction. Also, birds dozing( 教教 ) at the end of the line resorted to single-hemisphere sleep, rather than total relaxation, more often than inner ducks did. Rotating 16 birds through the positions in a fourduck row, the researchers found outer birds half-asleep during some 32 percent of dozing time versus about 12 percent for birds in internal spots. “We believe this is the first evidence for an animal behaviorally controlling sleep and wakefulness simultaneously in different regions of the brain,” the researchers say. The results provide the best evidence for a long-standing supposition that single-hemisphere sleep evolved as creatures scanned for enemies. The preference for opening an eye on the lookout side could be widespread, he predicts. He’s seen it in a pair of birds dozing side-by-side in the zoo and in a single pet bird sleeping by a mirror. The mirror-side eye closed as if the reflection were a companion and the other eye stayed open. Useful as half-sleeping might be, it’s only been found in birds and such water mammals 教教教教 教教 as dolphins, whales, and seals. Perhaps keeping one side of the brain awake allows a sleeping animal to surface occasionally to avoid drowning. 20 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Studies of birds may offer unique insights into sleep. Jerome M. Siegel of the UCLA says he wonders if birds’ half-brain sleep “is just the tip of the iceberg 教 教 教 教 .” He speculates that more examples may turn up when we take a closer look at other species. 11.A new study on birds’ sleep has revealed that . A) half-brain sleep is found in a wide variety of birds B) half-brain sleep is characterized by slow brain waves C) birds can control their half-brain sleep consciously D) birds seldom sleep with the whole of their brain at rest 12.According to the passage, birds often half sleep because . A) they have to watch out for possible attacks B) their brain hemispheres take turns to rest C) the two halves of their brain are differently structured D) they have to constantly keep an eye on their companions 13.The example of a bird sleeping in front of a mirror indicates that . A) the phenomenon of birds dozing in pairs is widespread B) birds prefer to sleep in pairs for the sake of security C) even an imagined companion gives the bird a sense of security D) a single pet bird enjoys seeing its own reflection in the mirror 14.While sleeping, some water mammals tend to keep half awake in order to . A) alert themselves to the approaching enemy B) emerge from water now and then to breathe C) be sensitive to the ever-changing environment D) avoid being swept away by rapid currents 15.By “just the tip of the iceberg” (Line 2, Para. 8), Siegel suggests that . A) half-brain sleep has something to do with icy weather B) the mystery of half-brain sleep is close to being sleepers C) most birds living in cold regions tend to be half sleepers D) half-brain sleep is a phenomenon that could exist among other species Passage Two Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage. A nine-year-old schoolgirl single-handedly cooks up a science-fair experiment that ends up debunking 教 教 教 … 教 教 教 教 a widely practiced medical treatment. Emily Rosa’s target was a practice known as therapeutic 教 教 教 教 教 touch(TT for short), whose advocates manipulate patients’ “energy field” to make them feel better and even, say some, to cure them of various ills. Yet Emily’s test shows that these energy fields can’t be detected, even by trained TT practitioners 教教教教教 . Obviously mindful of the publicity value of the situation, Journal editor George Lundberg appeared on TV to declare, “Age doesn’t matter. It’s good science that matters, and this is good science.” 21 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Emily’s mother Linda Rosa, a registered nurse, has been campaigning against TT for nearly a decade. Linda first thought about TT in the late ‘80s, when she learned it was on the approved list for continuing nursing education in Colorado. Its 100,000 trained practitioners (48,000 in the U.S.) don’t even touch their patients. Instead, they waved their hands a few inches from the patient’s body, pushing energy fields around until they’re in “balance.” TT advocates say these manipulations can help heal wounds, relieve pain and reduce fever. The claims are taken seriously enough that TT therapists are frequently hired by leading hospitals, at up to $70 an hour, to smooth patients’ energy, sometimes during surgery. Yet Rosa could not find any evidence that it works. To provide such proof, TT therapists would have to sit down for independent testing -something they haven’t been eager to do, even though James Randi has offered more than $1 million to anyone who can demonstrate the existence of a human energy field. (He’s had one taker so far. She failed). A skeptic might conclude that TT practitioners are afraid to lay their beliefs on the line. But who could turn down an innocent fourth-grader? Says Emily: “I think they didn’t take me very seriously because I’m a kid.” The experiment was straightforward: 21 TT therapists stuck their hands, palms up, through a screen. Emily held her own hand over one of theirs─left or right─and the practitioners had to say which hand it was. When the results were recorded, they’d done no better than they would have by simply guessing. If there was an energy field, they couldn’t feel it. 16. Which of the following is evidence that TT is widely practiced? A) TT has been in existence for decades. B) Many patients were cured by therapeutic touch. C) TT therapists are often employed by leading hospitals. D) More than 100,000 people are undergoing TT treatment. 17. Very few TT practitioners responded to the $1 million offer because . A) they didn’t take the offer seriously B) they didn’t want to risk their career C) they were unwilling to reveal their secret D) they thought it was not in line with their practice 18. The purpose of Emily Rosa’s experiment was . A) to see why TT could work the way it did B) to find out how TT cured patients’ illnesses C) to test whether she could sense the human energy field D) to test whether a human energy field really existed 19. Why did some TT practitioners agree to be the subjects of Emily’s experiment? A) It involved nothing more than mere guessing. B) They thought it was going to be a lot of fun. 22 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 C) It was more straightforward than other experiments. D) They sensed no harm in a little girl’s experiment. 20. What can we learn from the passage? A) Some widely accepted beliefs can be deceiving. B) Solid evidence weights more than pure theories. C) Little children can be as clever as trained TT practitioners. D) The principle of TT is too profound to understand. Passage Three Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. What might driving on an automated highway be like? The answer depends on what kind of system is ultimately adopted. Two distinct types are on the drawing board. The first is a special purpose lane system, in which certain lanes are reserved for automated vehicles. The second is a mixed traffic system: fully automated vehicles would share the road with partially automated or manually driven cars. A special-purpose lane system would require more extensive physical modifications to existing highways, but it promises the greatest gains in freeway(教教教教) capacity. Under either scheme, the driver would specify the desired destination, furnishing this information to a computer in the car at the beginning of the trip or perhaps just before reaching the automated highway. If a mixed traffic system was in place, automated driving could begin whenever the driver was on suitable equipped roads. If special-purpose lanes were available, the car could enter them and join existing traffic in two different ways. One method would use a special onramp 教 教 教 教 教 教 . As the driver approached the point of entry for the highway, devices installed on the roadside would electronically check the vehicle to determine its destination and to ascertain that it had the proper automation equipment in good working order. Assuming it passed such tests, the driver would then be guided through a gate and toward an automated lane. In this case, the transition from manual to automated control would take place on the entrance ramp. An alternative technique could employ conventional lanes, which would be shared by automated and regular vehicles. The driver would steer onto the highway and move in normal fashion to a “transition” lane. The vehicle would then shift under computer control onto a lane reserved for automated traffic. (The limitation of these lanes to automated traffic would, presumably, be well respected, because all trespassers教教教教教教教 could be swiftly identified by authorities.) Either approach to joining a lane of automated traffic would harmonize the movement of newly entering vehicles with those already traveling. Automatic control here should allow for smooth merging, without the usual uncertainties and potential for accidents. And once a vehicle had settled into automated travel, the driver would be free to release the wheel, open the morning paper or just relax. 23 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 21. We learn from the first paragraph that two systems of automated highways A) are being planned C) are now in wide use B) are being modified . D) are under construction 22. A special-purpose lane system is probably advantageous in that . A) it would require only minor changes to existing highways B) it would achieve the greatest highway traffic efficiency C) it has a lane for both automated and partially automated vehicles D) it offers more lanes for automated vehicles 23. Which of the following is true about driving on an automated highway? A) Vehicles traveling on it are assigned different lanes according to their destinations. B) A car can join existing traffic any time in a mixed lane system. C) The driver should inform his car computer of his destination before driving onto it. D) The driver should share the automated lane with those of regular vehicles. 24. We know from the passage that a car can enter a special-purpose lane . A) by smoothly merging with cars on the conventional lane B) by way of a ramp with electronic control devices C) through a specially guarded gate D) after all trespassers are identified and removed 25. When driving in an automated lane, the driver . A) should harmonize with newly entering cars B) doesn’t have to rely on his computer system C) should watch out for potential accidents D) doesn’t have to hold on to the steering wheel Passage Four Questions 21 to 30 are based on the following passage. Taking charge of yourself involves putting to rest some very prevalent myths. At the top of the list is the notion that intelligence is measured by your ability to solve complex problems; to read, write and compute at certain levels; and to resolve abstract equations quickly. This vision of intelligence asserts formal education and bookish excellence as the true measures of selffulfillment. It encourages a kind of intellectual prejudice that has brought with it some discouraging results. We have come to believe that someone who has more educational merit badges, who is very good at some form of school discipline is “intelligent.” Yet mental hospitals are filed with patients who have all of the properly lettered certificates. A truer indicator of intelligence is an effective, happy life lived each day and each present moment of every day. If you are happy, if you live each moment for everything it’s worth, then you are an 24 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 intelligent person. Problem solving is a useful help to your happiness, but if you know that given your inability to resolve a particular concern you can still choose happiness for yourself, or at a minimum refuse to choose unhappiness, then you are intelligent. You are intelligent because you have the ultimate weapon against the big N.B.D.─Nervous Break Down. “Intelligent” people do not have N.B.D.’s because they are in charge of themselves. They know how to choose happiness over depression, because they know how to deal with the problems of their lives. You can begin to think of yourself as truly intelligent on the basis of how you choose to feel in the face of trying circumstances. The life struggles are pretty much the same for each of us. Everyone who is involved with other human beings in any social context has similar difficulties. Disagreements, conflicts and compromises are a part of what it means to be human. Similarly, money, growing old, sickness, deaths, natural disasters and accidents are all events which present problems to virtually all human beings. But some people are able to make it, to avoid immobilizing depression and unhappiness despite such occurrences, while others collapse or have an N.B.D. Those who recognize problems as a human condition and don’t measure happiness by an absence of problems are the most intelligent kind of humans we know; also, the most rare. 26. According to the author, the conventional notion of intelligence measured in terms of one’s ability to read, write and compute . A) is a widely held but wrong concept C) is the root of all mental distress B) will help eliminate intellectual prejudice D) will contribute to one’s self-fulfillment 27. It is implied in the passage that holding a university degree . A) may result in one’s inability to solve complex real-life problems B) does not indicate one’s ability to write properly worded documents C) may make one mentally sick and physically weak D) does not mean that one is highly intelligent 28. The author thinks that an intelligent person knows . A) how to put up with some very prevalent myths B) how to find the best way to achieve success in life C) how to avoid depression and make his life worthwhile D) how to persuade others to compromise 29. In the last paragraph, the author tells us that . A) difficulties are but part of everyone’s life B) depression and unhappiness are unavoidable in life C) everybody should learn to avoid trying circumstances D) good feelings can contribute to eventual academic excellence 25 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 30. According to the passage, what kind of people are rare? A) Those who don’t emphasize bookish excellence in their pursuit of happiness. B) Those who are aware of difficulties in life but know how to avoid unhappiness. C) Those who measure happiness by an absence of problems but seldom suffer from N.B. D.’s. D)Those who are able to secure happiness though having to struggle against trying circumstances Unit 5 Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Passage One Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. Our culture has caused most Americans to assume not only that our language is universal but that the gestures we use are understood by everyone. We do not realize that waving good-bye is the way to summon a person from the Philippines to one’s side, or that in Italy and some LatinAmerican countries, curling the finger to oneself is a sign of farewell. Those private citizens who sent packages to our troops occupying Germany after World War II and marked them GIFT to escape duty payments did not bother to find out that “Gift” means poison in German. Moreover, we like to think of ourselves as friendly, yet we prefer to be at least 3 feet or an arm’s length away from others. Latins and Middle Easterners like to come closer and touch, which makes Americans uncomfortable. Our linguistic ( 教教教教 ) and cultural blindness and the casualness with which we take notice of the developed tastes, gestures, customs and language of other countries, are losing us friends, business and respect in the world. Even here in the United States, we make few concessions to the needs of foreign visitors. There are no information signs in four language on our public buildings or monuments; we do not have multilingual ( 教教教 (guided tours. Very few restaurant menus have translations, and multilingual waiters, bank clerks and policemen are rare. Our transportation systems have maps in English only and often we ourselves have difficulty understanding them. When we go abroad, we tend to cluster in hotels and restaurants where English is spoken. 26 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 The attitudes and information we pick up are conditioned by those natives—usually the richer— who speak English. Our business dealings, as well as the nation’s diplomacy, are conducted through interpreters. For many years, America and Americans could get by with cultural blindness and linguistic ignorance. After all, America was the most powerful country of the free world, the distributor of needed funds and goods. But all that is past. American dollars no longer buy all good things, and we are slowly beginning to realize that our proper role in the world is changing. A 1979 Harris poll reported that 55 percent of Americans want this country to play a more significant role in world affairs; we want to have a hand in the important decisions of the next century, even tough it may not always be the upper hand. 21. It can be inferred that Americans being approached too closely by Middle Easterners would most probably . A) stand still B) jump aside C) step forward D) draw back 22. The author gives many examples to criticize Americans for their . A) cultural self-centeredness B) casual manners C) indifference towards foreign visitors D) arrogance towards other cultures 23. In countries other than their own most Americans . A) are isolated by the local people B) are not well informed due to the language barrier C) tend to get along well with the natives D) need interpreters in hotels and restaurants 24. According to the author, American’s cultural blindness and linguistic ignorance will . A) affect their image in the new era B) cut themselves off from the outside world C) limit their role in world affairs D) weaken the position of the US dollar 25. The author’s intention in writing this article is to make Americans realize that . A) it is dangerous to ignore their foreign friends B) it is important to maintain their leading role in world affairs C) it is necessary to use several languages in public places D) it is time to get acquainted with other cultures 27 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Passage Two Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. In department stores and closets all over the world, they are waiting. Their outward appearance seems rather appealing because they come in a variety of styles, textures, and colors. But they are ultimately the biggest deception that exists in the fashion industry today. What are they? They are high heels—a woman’s worst enemy (whether she knows it or not). High heel shoes are the downfall of modern society. Fashion myths have led women to believe that they are more beautiful or sophisticated for wearing heels, but in reality, heels succeed in posing short as well as long term hardships. Women should fight the high heel industry by refusing to use or purchase them in order to save the world from unnecessary physical and psychological suffering. For the sake of fairness, it must be noted that there is a positive side to high heels. First, heels are excellent for aerating(教教教 ) lawns. Anyone who has ever worn heels on grass knows what I am talking about. A simple trip around the yard in a pair of those babies eliminates all need to call for a lawn care specialist, and provides the perfect-sized holes to give any lawn oxygen without all those messy chunks of dirt lying around. Second, heels are quite functional for defense against oncoming enemies, who can easily be scared away by threatening them with a pair of these sharp, deadly fashion accessories. Regardless of such practical uses for heels, the fact remains that wearing high heels is harmful to one’s physical health. Talk to any podiatrist(教教教教), and you will hear that the majority of their business comes from high-heel-wearing women. High heels are known to cause problems such as deformed feet and torn toenails. The risk of severe back problems and twisted or broken ankles is three times higher for a high heel wearer than for a flat shoe wearer. Wearing heels also creates the threat of getting a heel caught in a sidewalk crack or a sewer-grate 教 教 教 教 教 and being thrown to the ground—possibly breaking a nose, back, or neck. And of course, after wearing heels for a day, any woman knows she can look forward to a night of pain as she tries to comfort her swollen, aching feet. 26. What makes women blind to the deceptive nature of high heels? A) The multi-functional use of high heels. C) The rich variety of high heel styles. B) Their attempt to show off their status. D) Their wish to improve their appearance. 27. The author’s presentation of the positive side of high heels is meant A) to be ironic B) to poke fun at women . C) to be fair to the fashion industry D) to make his point convincing 28 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 28. The author’s presentation of the expression “those babies’ (Line 3, Para. 2) to refer to high heels . A) to show their fragile characteristics B) to indicate their feminine features C) to show women’s affection for them D) to emphasize their small size 29. The author’s chief argument against high heels is that . A) they pose a threat to lawns B) they are injurious to women’s health C) they don’t necessarily make women beautiful D) they are ineffective as a weapon of defense 30. It can be inferred from the passage that women should . A) see through the very hature of fashion myths B) boycott the products of the fashion industry C) go to a podiatrist regularly for advice D) avoid following fashion too closely Passage Three Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage. It is hardly necessary for me to cite all the evidence of the depressing state of literacy. These figures from the Department of Education are sufficient: 27 million Americans cannot read at all, and a further 35 million read at a level that is less than sufficient to survive in our society. But my own worry today is less that of the overwhelming problem of elemental literacy than it is of the slightly more luxurious problem of the decline in the skill even of the middle-class reader, of his unwillingness to afford those spaces of silence, those luxuries of domesticity and time and concentration, that surround the image of the classic act of reading. It has been suggested that almost 80 percent of America’s literate, educated teenagers can no longer read without an accompanying noise(music) in the background or a television screen flickering 教教教教at the corner of their field of perception. We know very little about the brain and how it deals with simultaneous conflicting input, but every common-sense intuition suggests we should be profoundly alarmed. This violation of concentration, silence, solitude( 教 教 教 教 教 )goes to the very heart of our notion of literacy, this new form of part-reading, of part-perception against background distraction, renders impossible certain essential acts of apprehension and concentration, let alone that most important tribute any human being can pay to a poem or a piece of prose he or she really loves, which is to learn it by heart. Not by brain, by heart; the expression is vital. Under these circumstances, the question of what future there is for the arts of reading is a real 29 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 one. Ahead of us lie technical, psychic( 教 教 教 ), and social transformations probably much more dramatic than those brought about by Gutenberg, the German inventor in printing. The Gutenberg revolution, as we now know it, took a long time; its effects are still being debated. The information revolution will touch every facet of composition, publication, distribution, and reading. No one in the book industry can say with any confidence what will happen to the book as we’ve known it. 31.The picture of the reading ability of the American people, drawn by the author, is A) rather bleak C) very impressive B) fairly bright . D) quite encouraging 32. The author’s biggest concern is . A) elementary school children’s disinterest in reading classics B) the surprisingly low rate of literacy in the U.S. C) the musical setting American readers require of reading D) the reading ability and reading behavior of the middle class 33. A major problem with most adolescents who can read is . A) their fondness of music and TV programs B) their ignorance of various forms of art and literature C) their lack of attentiveness and basic understanding D) their inability to focus on conflicting input 34. The author claims that the best way a reader can show admiration for a piece of poetry or prose is . A) to the able to appreciate it and memorize it B) to analyze its essential features C) to think it over conscientiously D) to make a fair appraisal of its artistic value 35. About the future of the arts of reading the author feels A) upset B) uncertain C) alarmed . D) pessimistic Passage Four Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage. For centuries, explorers have risked their lives venturing into the unknown for reasons that were to varying degrees economic and nationalistic. Columbus went west to look for better trade 30 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 routes to the Orient and to promote the greater glory of Spain. Lewis and Clark journeyed into the American wilderness to find out what the U.S. had acquired when it purchased Louisiana, and the Appolo astronauts rocketed to the moon in a dramatic show of technological muscle during the cold war. Although their missions blended commercial and political-military imperatives, the explorers involved all accomplished some significant science simply by going where no scientists had gone before. Today Mars looms( 教教教教 ) as humanity’s next great terra incognita( 教教教教教 ). And with doubtful prospects for a short-term financial return, with the cold war a rapidly fading memory and amid a growing emphasis on international cooperation in large space ventures, it is clear that imperatives other than profits or nationalism will have to compel human beings to leave their tracks on the planet’s reddish surface. Could it be that science, which has long played a minor role in exploration, is at last destined to take a leading role? The question naturally invites a couple of others: Are there experiments that only humans could do on Mars? Could those experiments provide insights profound enough to justify the expense of sending people across interplanetary space? With Mars the scientific stakes are arguably higher than they have ever been. The issue of whether life ever existed on the planet, and whether it persists to this day, has been highlighted by mounting evidence that the Red Planet once had abundant stable, liquid water and by the continuing controversy over suggestions that bacterial fossils rode to Earth on a mctcorite(教教) from Mars. A more conclusive answer about life on Mars, past or present, would give researchers invaluable data about the range of conditions under which a planet can generate the complex chemistry that leads to life. If it could be established that life arose independently on Mars and Earth, the finding would provide the first concrete clues in one of the deepest mysteries in all of science: the prevalence of life in the universe. 36.According to the passage, the chief purpose of explorers in going to unknown places in the past was . A) to display their country’s military might C) to find new areas for colonization B) to accomplish some significant science D) to pursue commercial and state interests 37.At present, a probable inducement for countries to initiate large-scale space ventures is . A) international cooperation C) scientific research B) nationalistic reasons D) long-term profits 38. What is the main goal of sending human missions to Mars? 31 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 A) To find out if life ever existed there. B) To see if humans could survive there. C) To prove the feasibility of large-scale space ventures. D) To show the leading role of science in space exploration. 39. By saying “With Mars the scientific stakes are arguably higher than they have ever been” (Line 1, Para, 4), the author means that . A) with Mars the risks involved are much greater than any previous space ventures B) in the case of Mars, the rewards of scientific exploration can be very high C) in the case of Mars, much more research funds are needed than ever before D) with Mars, scientists argue, the fundamental interests of science are at issue 40. The passage tells us that proof of life on Mars would . A) make clear the complex chemistry in the development of life B) confirm the suggestion that bacterial fossils travelled to Earth on a meteorite C) reveal the kind of conditions under which life originates D) provide an explanation why life is common in the universe Unit 6 Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. Navigation computers, now sold by most car-makers, cost $2 000 and up. No surprise, then, that they are most often found in luxury cars, like Lexus, BMW and Audi. But it is a developing technology—meaning prices should eventually drop—and the market does seem to be growing. Even at current prices, a navigation computer is impressive. It can guide you from point to point in most major cities with precise turn-by-turn directions—spoken by a clear humansounding voice, and written on a screen in front of the driver. The computer works with an antenna教教教教that takes signals from no fewer than three of the 24 global positioning system(GPS) satellites. By measuring the time required for a signal to travel between the satellites and the antenna, the car’s location can be pinned down within 100 meters. 32 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 The satellite signals, along with inputs on speed from a wheel-speed sensor and direction from a meter, determine the car’s position even as it moves. This information is combined with a map database. Streets, landmarks and points of interest are included. Most systems are basically identical. The differences come in hardware—the way the computer accepts the driver’s request for directions and the way it presents the driving instructions. On most systems, a driver enters a desired address, motorway junction or point of interest via a touch screen or disc. But the Lexus screen goes a step further: you can point to any spot on the map screen and get directions to it. BMW’s system offers a set of cross hairs 教教教教教教教教教教 that can be moved across the map (you have several choices of map scale) to pick a point you’d like to get to. Audi’s screen can be switched to TV reception. Even the voices that recite the directions can differ, with better systems like BMW’s and Lexus’s having a wider vocabulary. The instructions are available in French, German, Spanish, Dutch and Italian, as well as English. The driver can also choose parameters for determining the route: fastest, shortest or no freeways(教教教教教教), for example. 21. We learn from the passage that navigation computers . C A) will greatly promote sales of automobiles B) may help solve potential traffic problems D C) are likely to be accepted by more drivers D) will soon be viewed as a symbol of luxury 22. With a navigation computer, a driver will easily find the best route to his destination A) by inputting the exact address B) by indicating the location of his car C) by checking his computer database D) by giving vocal orders to the computer 23. Despite their varied designs, navigation computers used in cars A) are more or less the same price . . B) provide directions in much the same way C) work on more or less the same principles D) receive instructions from the same satellites 24. The navigation computer functions . A) By means of a direction finder and a speed detector B) Basically on satellite signals and a map database C) Mainly through the reception of turn-by-turn directions D) By using a screen to display satellite signals 25. The navigation systems in cars like Lexus, BMW and Audi are mentioned to show . A) the immaturity of the new technology 33 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 B) the superiority of the global positioning system C) the cause of price fluctuations in car equipment D) the different ways of providing guidance to the driver Passage Two Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. “The world’s environment is surprisingly healthy. Discuss.” If that were an examination topic, most students would tear it apart, offering a long list of complaints: from local smog 教教教教 to global climate change, from the felling 教教教教 of forests to the extinction of species. The list would largely be accurate, the concern legitimate. Yet the students who should be given the highest marks would actually be those who agreed with the statement. The surprise is how good things are, not how bad. After all, the world’s population has more than tripled during this century, and world output has risen hugely, so you would expect the earth itself to have been affected. Indeed, if people lived, consumed and produced things in the same way as they did in 1900 (or 1950, or indeed 1980), the world by now would be a pretty disgusting place: smelly, dirty, toxic and dangerous. But they don’t. The reasons why they don’t, and why the environment has not been ruined, have to do with prices, technological innovation, social change and government regulation in response to popular pressure. That is why today’s environmental problems in the poor countries ought, in principle, to be solvable. Raw materials have not run out, and show no sign of doing so. Logically, one day they must: the planet is a finite place. Yet it is also very big, and man is very ingenious. What has happened is that every time a material seems to be running short, the price has risen and, in response, people have looked for new sources of supply, tried to find ways to use less of the materials, or looked for a new substitute. For this reason prices for energy and for minerals have fallen in real terms during the century. The same is true for food. Prices fluctuate, in response to harvests, natural disasters and political instability; and when they rise, it takes some time before new sources of supply become available. But they always do, assisted by new farming and crop technology. The longterm trend has been downwards. It is where prices and markets do not operate properly that this benign 教教教教教 trend begins to stumble, and the genuine problems arise. Markets cannot always keep the environment healthy. If no one owns the resource concerned, no one has an interest in conserving it or fostering it: fish is the best example of this. 26. According to the author, most students . A) believe the world’s environment is in an undesirable condition B) agree that the environment of the world is not as bad as it is thought to be 34 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 C) get high marks for their good knowledge of the world’s environment D) appear somewhat unconcerned about the state of the world’s environment 27. The huge increase in world production and population A) has made the world a worse place to live in . B) has had a positive influence on the environment C) has not significantly affected the environment D) has made the world a dangerous place to live in 28. One of the reasons why the long-term trend of prices has been downwards is that . A) technological innovation can promote social stability B) political instability will cause consumption to drop C) new farming and crop technology can lead to overproduction D) new sources are always becoming available 29. Fish resources are diminishing because . A) no new substitutes can be found in large quantities B) they are not owned by any particular entity C) improper methods of fishing have ruined the fishing grounds D) water pollution is extremely serious 30. The primary solution to environmental problems is . A) to allow market forces to operate properly B) to curb consumption of natural resources C) to limit the growth of the world population D) to avoid fluctuations in prices Passage Three Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage. About the time that schools and others quite reasonably became interested in seeing to it that all children, whatever their background, were fairly treated, intelligence testing became unpopular. Some thought it was unfair to minority children. Through the past few decades such testing has gone out of fashion and many communities have indeed forbidden it. However, paradoxically, just recently a group of black parents filed a lawsuit(教教) in California claiming that the state’s ban on IQ testing discriminates against their children by denying them the opportunity to take the test. (They believed, correctly, that IQ tests are a valid method of evaluating children for special education classes.) The judge, therefore, reversed, at least partially, his original decision. And so the argument goes on and on. Does it benefit or harm children from minority groups to have their intelligence tested? We have always been on the side of permitting, even facilitating, such testing. If a child of any color or group is doing poorly in school it seems to us very 35 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 important to know whether it is because he or she is of low intelligence, or whether some other factor is the cause. What school and family can do to improve poor performance is influenced by its cause. It is not discriminative to evaluate either a child’s physical condition or his intellectual level. Unfortunately, intellectual level seems to be a sensitive subject, and what the law allows us to do varies from time to time. The same fluctuation back and forth occurs in areas other than intelligence. Thirty years or so ago, for instance, white families were encouraged to adopt black children. It was considered discriminative not to do so. And then the style changed and this cross-racial adopting became generally unpopular, and social agencies felt that black children should go to black families only. It is hard to say what are the best procedures. But surely good will on the part of all of us is needed. As to intelligence, in our opinion, the more we know about any child’s intellectual level, the better for the child in question. 31. Why did the intelligence test become unpopular in the past few decades? A) Its validity was challenged by many communities. B) It was considered discriminative against minority children. C) It met with strong opposition from the majority of black parents. D) It deprived the black children of their rights to a good education. 32. The recent legal action taken by some black parents in California aimed to . A) draw public attention to IQ testing B) put an end to special education C) remove the state’s ban on intelligence tests D) have their children enter white schools 33. The author believes that intelligence testing . A) may ease racial confrontation in the United States B) can encourage black children to keep up with white children C) may seriously aggravate racial discrimination in the United States D) can help black parents make decisions about their children’s education 34. The author’s opinion of child adoption seems to be that . A) no rules whatsoever can be prescribed B) white families should adopt black children C) adoption should be based on IQ test results D) cross-racial adoption is to be advocated 35. Child adoption is mentioned in the passage to show that . A) good will may sometimes complicate racial problems B) social surroundings are vital to the healthy growth of children C) intelligence testing also applies to non-academic areas 36 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 D) American opinion can shift when it comes to sensitive issues Passage Four Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage. Not too many decades ago it seemed “obvious” both to the general public and to sociologists that modern society has changed people’s natural relations, loosened their responsibilities to kin 教教 教教 and neighbors, and substituted in their place superficial relationships with passing acquaintances. However, in recent years a growing body of research has revealed that the “obvious” is not true. It seems that if you are a city resident, you typically know a smaller proportion of your neighbors than you do if you are a resident of a smaller community. But, for the most part, this fact has few significant consequences. It does not necessarily follow that if you know few of your neighbors you will know no one else. Even in very large cities, people maintain close social ties within small, private social worlds. Indeed, the number and quality of meaningful relationships do not differ between more and less urban people. Small-town residents are more involved with kin than are big-city residents. Yet city dwellers compensate by developing friendships with people who share similar interests and activities. Urbanism may produce a different style of life, but the quality of life does not differ between town and city. Nor are residents of large communities any likelier to display psychological symptoms of stress or alienation, a feeling of not belonging, than are residents of smaller communities. However, city dwellers do worry more about crime, and this leads them to a distrust of strangers. These findings do not imply that urbanism makes little or no difference. If neighbors are strangers to one another, they are less likely to sweep the sidewalk of an elderly couple living next door or keep an eye out for young trouble makers. Moreover, as Wirth suggested, there may be a link between a community’s population size and its social heterogeneity( 教教教 ). For instance, sociologists have found much evidence that the size of a community is associated with bad behavior including gambling, drugs, etc. Large-city urbanites are also more likely than their smalltown counterparts to have a cosmopolitan( 教 教 教 教 教 教 ) outlook, to display less responsibility to traditional kinship roles, to vote for leftist political candidates, and to be tolerant of nontraditional religious groups, unpopular political groups, and so-called undesirables. Everything considered, heterogeneity and unusual behavior seem to be outcomes of large population size. 36. Which of the following statements best describes the organization of the first paragraph? A) Two contrasting views are presented. B) An argument is examined and possible solutions given. C) Research results concerning the quality of urban life are presented in order of time. D) A detailed description of the difference between urban and small-town life is given. 37. According to the passage, it was once a common belief that urban residents . 37 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 A) did not have the same interests as their neighbors B) could not develop long-standing relationships C) tended to be associated with bad behavior D) usually had more friends 38. One of the consequence of urban life is that impersonal relationships among neighbors A) disrupt people’s natural relations . B) make them worry about crime C) cause them not to show concern for one another D) cause them to be suspicious of each other 39. It can be inferred from the passage that the bigger a community is, . A) the better its quality of life B) the more similar its interests C) the more tolerant and open-minded it is D) the likelier it is to display psychological symptoms of stress 40. What is the passage mainly about? A) Similarities in the interpersonal relationships between urbanites and small-town dwellers. B) Advantages of living in big cities as compared with living in small towns. C) The positive role that urbanism plays in modern life. D) The strong feeling of alienation of city inhabitants. Unit 7 Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. When global warming finally came, it stuck with a vengeance( 教 教 教 教 教 ). In some regions, temperatures rose several degrees in less than a century. Sea levels shot up nearly 400 feet, flooding coastal settlements and forcing people to migrate inland. Deserts spread throughout the world as vegetation shifted drastically in North America, Europe and Asia. After driving many of the animals around them to near extinction, people were forced to abandon their old way of life for a radically new survival strategy that resulted in widespread starvation and disease. The adaptation 38 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 was farming: the global-warming crisis that gave rise to it happened more than 10,000 years ago. As environmentalists convene in Rio de Janeiro this week to ponder the global climate of the future, earth scientists are in the midst of a revolution in understanding how climate has changed in the past—and how those changes have transformed human existence. Researchers have begun to piece together an illuminating picture of the powerful geological and astronomical forces that have combined to change the planet’s environment from hot to cold, wet to dry and back again over a time period stretching back hundreds of millions of year. Most important, scientists are beginning to realize that the climatic changes have had a major impact on the evolution of the human species. New research now suggests that climate shifts have played a key role in nearly every significant turning point in human evolution: from the dawn of primates(教教教教教 )some 65 million years ago to human ancestors rising up to walk on two legs, from the huge expansion of the human brain to the rise of agriculture. Indeed, the human history has not been merely touched by global climate change, some scientists argue, it has in some instances been driven by it. The new research has profound implications for the environmental summit in Rio. Among other things, the findings demonstrate that dramatic climate change is nothing new for planet Earth. The benign( 教 教 教 )global environment that has existed over the past 10,000 years—during which agriculture, writing, cities and most other features of civilization appeared—is a mere bright spot in a much larger pattern of widely varying climate over the ages. In fact, the pattern or climate change in the past reveals that Earth’s climate will almost certainly go through dramatic changes in the future—even without the influence of human activity. 21. Farming emerged as a survival strategy because man had been obliged E A) to give up his former way of life F . B) to leave the coastal areas G C) to follow the ever-shifting vegetation H D) to abandon his original settlement 24. Earth scientists have come to understand that climate . A) is going through a fundamental change B)has been getting warmer for 10,000 years C) will eventually change from hot to cold D) has gone through periodical change 23. Scientists believe that human evolution . A) has seldom been accompanied by climatic changes B) has exerted little influence on climatic changes C) has largely been effected by climatic changes D) has had a major impact on climatic changes 24. Evidence of past climatic changes indicates that . A) human activities have accelerated changes of Earth’s environment 39 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 B) Earth’s environment will remain mild despite human interference C) Earth’s climate is bound to change significantly in the future D) Earth’s climate is unlikely to undergo substantial changes in the future 25. The message the author wishes to convey in the passage is that . A) human civilization remains glorious though it is affected by climatic changes B) mankind is virtually helpless in the face of the dramatic changes of climate C) man has to limit his activities to slow down the global warming process D) human civilization will continue to develop in spite of the changes of nature Passage Two Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. No woman can be too rich or too thin. This saying often attributed to the late Duchess教教教教教教 Of Windsor embodies much of the odd spirit of our times. Being thin is deemed as such a virtue. The problem with such a view is that some people actually attempt to live by it. I myself have fantasies of slipping into narrow designer clothes. Consequently, I have been on a diet for the better—or worse—part of my life. Being rich wouldn’t be bad either, but that won’t happen unless an unknown relative dies suddenly in some distant land, leaving me millions of dollars. Where did we go off the track? When did eating butter become a sin, and a little bit of extra flesh unappealing, if not repellent? All religions have certain days when people refrain from eating, and excessive eating is one of Christianity’s seven deadly sins. However, until quite recently, most people had a problem getting enough to eat. In some religious groups, wealth was a symbol of probable salvation and high morals, and fatness a sign of wealth and well-being. Today the opposite is true. We have shifted to thinness as our new mark of virtue. The result is that being fat 教 or even only somewhat overweight 教 is bad because it implies a lack of moral strength. Our obsession( 教教) with thinness is also fueled by health concerns. It is true that in this country we have more overweight people than ever before, and that, in many cases, being overweight correlates with an increased risk of heart and blood vessel disease. These diseases, however, may have as much to do with our way of life and our high-fat diets as with excess weight. And the associated risk of cancer in the digestive system may be more of a dietary problem—too much fat and a lack of fiber—than a weight problem. The real concern, then, is not that we weigh too much, but that we neither exercise enough nor eat well. Exercise is necessary for strong bones and both heart and lung health. A balanced diet without a lot of fat can also help the body avoid many diseases. We should surely stop paying so much attention to weight. Simply being thin is not enough. It is actually hazardous if those who get(or already are)thin think they are automatically healthy and thus free from paying attention to their overall life-style. Thinness can be pure vainglory(教教)教 40 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 26教In the eyes of the author, an odd phenomenon nowadays is that . A) the Duchess of Windsor is regarded as a woman of virtue B) looking slim is a symbol of having a large fortune C) being thin is viewed as a much desired quality D) religious people are not necessarily virtuous 27. Swept by the prevailing trend, the author . A) had to go on a diet for the greater part of her life B) could still prevent herself from going off the track C) had to seek help from rich distant relatives D) had to wear highly fashionable clothes 28.In human history, people’s views on body weight . A)were closely related to their religious beliefs B)changed from time to time C)varied between the poor and the rich D)led to different moral standards 29.The author criticizes women’s obsession with thinness . A)from an economic and educational perspective B)from sociological and medical points of view C)from a historical and religious standpoint D)in the light of moral principles 30.What’s the author’s advice to women who are absorbed in the idea of thinness? A)They should be more concerned with their overall lifestyle. B)They should be more watchful for fatal diseases. C)They should gain weight to look healthy. D)They should rid themselves of fantasies about designer clothes. Passage Three Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage War may be a natural expression of biological instincts and drives toward aggression in the human species. Natural impulses of anger, hostility, and territoriality( 教教教教教教教 )are expressed through acts of violence. These are all qualities that humans share with animals. Aggression is a kind of innate( 教 教 教 )survival mechanism, an instinct for self-preservation, that allows animals to defend themselves from threats to their existence. But, on the other hand, human violence shows evidence of being a learned behavior. In the case of human aggression, violence cannot be simply reduced to an instinct. The many expressions of human violence are always conditioned by social conventions that give shape to aggressive behavior. In human societies violence has a social function: It is a strategy for creating or destroying forms of social order. Religious traditions have 41 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 taken a leading role in directing the powers of violence. We will look at the ritual and ethical( 教教教 教)patterns within which human violence has been directed. The violence within a society is controlled through institutions of law. The more developed a legal system becomes, the more society takes responsibility for the discovery , control, and punishment of violent acts. In most tribal societies the only means to deal with an act of violence is revenge. Each family group may have the responsibility for personally carrying out judgment and punishment upon the person who committed the offense. But in legal systems, the responsibility for revenge becomes depersonalized and diffused. The society assumes the responsibility for protecting individuals from violence. In cases where they cannot be protected, the society is responsible for imposing punishment. In a state controlled legal system, individuals are removed from the cycle of revenge motivated by acts of violence, and the state assumes responsibility for their protection. The other side of a state legal apparatus is a state military apparatus. While the one protects the individual from violence ,the other sacrifices the individual to violence in the interests of the state. In war the state affirms its supreme power over the individuals within its own borders. War is not simply a trial by combat to settle disputes between states; it is the moment when the state makes its most powerful demands upon its people for their commitment, allegiance, and supreme sacrifice. Times of war test a community’s deepest religious and ethical commitments. 31.Human violence shows evidence of being a learned behavior in that . A)it threatens the existing social systems B) it is influenced by society C) it has roots in religious conflicts D) it is directed against institutions of law 32.The function of legal systems, according to the passage is . A)to control violence within a society B) to protect the world from chaos C) to free society from the idea of revenge D) to give the government absolute power 33.What does the author mean by saying “…in legal systems, the responsibility for revenge becomes depersonalized and diffused” (Lines5-6, Para.2 )? A) Legal systems greatly reduce the possibilities of physical violence. B) Offenses against individuals are no longer judged on a personal basis. C) Victims of violence find it more difficult to take revenge. D) Punishment is not carried out directly by the individuals involved. 34.The word “allegiance” ( Line5, Para.3 )is closest in meaning to . A)loyalty B) Objective C) survival 42 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 D) motive 35.What can we learn from the last paragraph? A) Governments tend to abuse their supreme power in times of war. B) In times of war governments may extend their power across national borders. C) In times of war governments impose high religious and ethical standards on their people. D) Governments may sacrifice individuals in the interests of the state in times of war Passage Four Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage. Researchers who are unfamiliar with the cultural and ethnic groups they are studying must take extra precautions to shed any biases they bring with them from their own culture. For example, they must make sure they construct measures that are meaningful for each of the cultural or ethnic minority groups beings studied. In conducting research on cultural and ethnic minority issues, investigators distinguish between the emic approach and the etic approach. In the emic approach, the goal is to describe behavior in one culture or ethnic group in terms that are meaningful and important to the people in that culture or ethnic group, without regard to other cultures or ethnic groups. In the etic approach, the goal is to describe behavior so that generalizations can be made across cultures. If researchers construct a questionnaire in an emic fashion, their concern is only that the questions are meaningful to the particular culture or ethnic group being studied. If, however, the researchers construct a questionnaire in an ecit fashion, they want to include questions that reflect concepts familiar to all cultures involved. How might the emic and etic approaches be reflected in the study of family processes? In the emic approach , the researchers might choose to focus only on middle-class White families, without regard for whether the information obtained in the study can be generalized or is appropriate for ethnic minority groups. In a subsequent Study, the researchers may decide to adopt an etic approach by studying not only middle-class White families, but also lower-income White families, Black American families, Spanish American families, and Asian American families. In studying ethnic minority families, the researchers would likely discover that the extended family is more frequently a support system in ethnic minority families than in White American families. If so, the emic approach would reveal a different pattern of family interaction than would the etic approach, documenting that research with middle-class White families cannot always be generalized to all ethnic groups. 36.According to the first paragraph, researchers unfamiliar with the target cultures are inclined to . 43 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 A) be overcautious in constructing meaningful measures B) view them from their own cultural perspective C) guard against interference from their own culture D) accept readily what is alien to their own culture 37.What does the author say about the emic approach and the etic approach? A) They have different research focuses in the study of ethnic issues. B) The former is biased while the latter is objective C) The former concentrates on study of culture while the latter on family issues. D) They are both heavily dependent on questionnaires in conducting surveys. 38.Compared with the etic approach, the emic approach is apparently more . A)culturally interactive B) culture-oriented C) culturally biased D) culture-specific 39.The etic approach is concerned with . A) the general characteristics of minority families B) culture-related concepts of individual ethnic groups C) features shared by various cultures or ethnic groups D) the economic conditions of different types of families 40.Which of the following is true of the ethnic minority families in the U.S. according to the passage? A) Their cultural patterns are usually more adaptable B) Their cultural concepts are difficult to comprehend C) They don’t interact with each other so much as White families D)They have closer family ties than White families Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. Bill Gates, the billionaire Microsoft chairman without a single earned university degree, is by 44 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 his success raising new doubts about the worth of the business world's favorite academic title: the MBA (Master of Business Administration). The MBA, a 20th-century product, always has borne the mark of lowly commerce and greed (教教) on the tree-lined campuses ruled by purer disciplines such as philosophy and literature. But even with the recession apparently cutting into the hiring of business school graduates, about 79,000 people are expected to receive MBAs in 1993.This is nearly 16 times the number of business graduates in 1960,a testimony to the widespread assumption that the MBA is vital for young men and women who want to run companies some day.“If you are going into the corporate world it is still a disadvantage not to have one," said Donald Morrison, professor of marketing and management science. "But in the last five years or so, when someone says, ' Should I attempt to get an MBA,' the answer a lot more is: It depends." The success of Bill Gates and other non-MBAs, such as the late Sam Walton of Wal-Mart Stores Inc. has helped inspire self-conscious debates on business school campuses over the worth of a business degree and whether management skills can be taught. The Harvard Business Review printed a lively, fictional exchange of letters to dramatize complaints about business degree holders. The article called MBA hires "extremely disappointing" and said "MBAs wants to move up too fast, they don't understand politics and people, and they aren't able to function as part of a team until their third year. But by then, they're out looking for other jobs." The problem, most participants in the debate acknowledge, is that the MBA has acquired an aura (教教) of future riches and power far beyond its actual importance and usefulness. Enrollment in business schools exploded in the 1970s and 1980s and created the assumption that no one who pursued a business career could do with out one. The growth was fueled by a backlash( 教 教 )against the anti-business values of the 1960s and by the women's movement. Business people who have hired or worked with MBAs say those with the degrees of ten know how to analyze systems but are not so skillful at motivating people.“They don't get a lot of grounding in the people side of the business, "said James Shaffer, vice-president and principal of the Towers Perrin management consulting firm. 21. According to Paragraph 2, what is the general attitude towards business on campuses dominated by purer disciplines? A) Envious. B) Scornful. C) Realistic. D) Appreciative. 45 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 22. It seems that the controversy over the values of MBA degrees has been fueled mainly by . A) the success of many non-MBAs B)the complaints from various employers C)the poor performance of MBAs at work D)the criticism from the scientists of purer disciplines 23. What is the major weakness of MBA holders according to The Harvard Business Review? A) They are not good at dealing with people. B) They keep complaining about their jobs. C) They are usually self-centered. D) They are aggressive and greedy. 24. From the passage we know that most MBAs . A) can climb the corporate ladder fairly quickly B) cherish unrealistic expectations about their future C) quit their jobs once they are familiar with their workmates D) receive salaries that do not match their professional training 25. What is the passage mainly about? A) A debate held recently on university campuses. B) Doubts about the worth of holding an MBA degree. C) Why there is an increased enrollment in MBA programs. D) The necessity of reforming MBA programs in business schools. Passage Two Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. German Chancellor ( 教 教 )Otto Von Bismarck may be most famous for his military and diplomatic talent, but his legacy ( 教教 ) includes many of today's social insurance programs During the middle of the 19th century, Germany, along with other European nations, experienced an unprecedented rash of workplace deaths and accidents as a result of growing industrialization. Motivated in part by Christian compassion( 教 教 )for the helpless as well as a practical political impulse to undercut the support of the socialist labor movement, Chancellor Bismarck created the world's first workers' compensation law in 1884. By 1908,the United States was the only industrial nation in the world that lacked workers' compensation insurance. America's injured workers could sue for damages in a court of law, but they still faced a number of tough legal barriers. For example, employees had to prove that their injuries directly resulted from employer negligence and that they themselves were ignorant about potential hazards in the workplace. The first state workers' compensation law in this country was passed in 1911,and the program soon spread throughout the nation. After World War Ⅱbenefit payments to American workers did not keep up with the cost of 46 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 living. In fact, real benefit levels were lower in the 1970s than they were in the 1940s,and in most states the maximum benefit was below the poverty level for a family of four. In 1970,President Richard Nixon set up a national commission to study the problems of workers' compensation. Two years later, the commission issued 19 key recommendations, including one that called for increasing compensation benefit levels to 100 percent of the states' average weekly wages. In fact, the average compensation benefit in America has climbed from 55 percent of the states' average weekly wages in 1972 to 97 percent today. But, as most studies show, every 10 percent increase in compensation benefits results in a 5 percent increase in the numbers of workers who file for claims. And with so much more money floating in the workers' compensation system, it's not surprising that doctors and lawyers have helped themselves to a large slice of the growing pie. 26. The world's first workers' compensation law was introduced by Bismarck . A) for fear of losing the support of the socialist labor movement B)out of religious and political considerations C)to speed up the pace of industrialization D)to make industrial production safer 27. We learn from the passage that the process of industrialization in Europe . A) met growing resistance from laborers working at machines B)resulted in the development of popular social insurance programs C)was accompanied by an increased number of workshop accidents D)required workers to be aware of the potential dangers at the workplace 28. One of the problems the American injured workers faced in getting compensation in the early 19th century was that . A)they had to produce evidence that their employers were responsible for the accident B)America's average compensation benefit was much lower than the cost of living C)different state in the U.S. had totally different compensation programs D)they had to have the courage to sue for damages in a court of law 29. After 1972 workers' compensation insurance in the U.S. became more favorable to workers so that . A)the poverty level for a family of four went up drastically B)more money was allocated to their compensation system C)there were fewer legal barriers when they filed for claims D)the number of workers suing for damages increased 30. The author ends the passage with the implication that . 47 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 A) compensation benefits in America are soaring to new heights B)people from all walks of life can benefit from the compensation system C)the workers are not the only ones to benefit from the compensation system D)money floating in the compensation system is a huge drain on the U.S. economy Passage Three Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage. When school officials in Kalkaska, Michigan, closed classes last week, the media flocked to the story, portraying the town's 2,305 students as victims of stingy (教教教 ) taxpayers. There is some truth to that; the property-tax rate here is one-third lower than the state average. But shutting their schools also allowed Kalkaska's educators and the state's largest teachers' union, the Michigan Education Association, to make a political point. Their aim was to spur passage of legislation Michigan lawmakers are debating to increase the state's share of school funding. It was no coincidence that Kalkaska shut its schools two weeks after residents rejected a 28 percent property-tax increase. The school board argued that without the increase it lacked the $ 1.5 million needed to keep schools open. But the school system had not done all it could to keep the schools open. Officials declined to borrow against next year's state aid, they refused to trim extra curricular activities and they did not consider seeking a smaller—perhaps more acceptable—tax increase. In fact, closing early is costing Kalkaska a significant amount, including $600,000 in unemployment payments to teachers and staff and $250,000 in lost state aid. In February, the school system promised teachers and staff two months of retirement payments in case schools closed early, a deal that will cost the district $275,000 more. Other signs suggest school authorities were at least as eager to make a political statement as to keep schools open. The Michigan Education Association hired a public relations firm to stage a rally marking the school closings, which attracted 14 local and national television stations and networks. The president of the National Education Association, the MEA's parent organization, flew from Washington, D.C., for the event. And the union tutored school officials in the art of television interviews. School supervisor Doyle Disbrow acknowledges the district could have kept schools open by cutting programs but denies the moves were politically motivated. Michigan lawmakers have reacted angrily to the closings. The state Senate has already voted to put the system into receivership (教教教教) and reopen schools immediately; the Michigan House plans to consider the bill this week. 31. We learn from the passage that schools in Kalkaska, Michigan, are funded . A) mainly by the state government B) exclusively by the local government C) by the National Education Association D) by both the local and state governments 48 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 32. One of the purposes for which school officials closed classes was . A)to draw the attention of local taxpayers to political issues B)to avoid paying retirement benefits to teachers and staff C)to pressure Michigan lawmakers into increasing state funds for local schools D)to make the financial difficulties of their teachers and staff known to the public 33. The author seems to disapprove of . A)the shutting of schools in Kalkaska B)the involvement of the mass media C)the Michigan lawmakers' endless debating D)delaying the passage of the school funding legislation 34. We learn from the passage that school authorities in Kalkaska are more concerned about A) making a political issue of the closing of the schools B) the attitude of the MEA's parent organization C) a raise in the property-tax rate in Michigan D) reopening the schools there immediately 35. According to the passage, the closing of the schools developed into a crisis because of . A) the strong protest on the part of the students' parents B) the political motives on the part of the educators C) the weak response of the state officials D) the complexity of the problem Passage Four Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage. Early in the age of affluence ( 教教 ) that followed World War Ⅱ 教 an American retailing analyst named Victor Lebow proclaimed, “Our enormously productive economy...demands that we make consumption our way of life, that we convert the buying and use of goods into rituals, that we seek our spiritual satisfaction, our ego satisfaction, in consumption. We need things consumed, burned up, worn out, replaced and discarded at an ever increasing rate." Americans have responded to Lebow's call, and much of the world has followed.Consumption has become a central pillar of life in industrial lands and is even embedded in social values. Opinion surveys in the world's two largest economics-Japan and the United States-show consumerist definitions of success becoming ever more prevalent. Overconsumption by the world's fortunate is an environmental problem unmatched in severity by anything but perhaps population growth. Their surging exploitation of resources threatens to exhaust or unalterably spoil forests, soils, water, air and climate. Ironically, high consumption may be a mixed blessing in human terms, too. The timehonored values of integrity of character, good work, friendship, family and community have often been sacrificed in the rush to riches. 49 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Thus many in the industrial lands have a sense that their world of plenty is somehow hollow, that misled by a consumerist culture, they have been fruitlessly attempting to satisfy what are essentially social, psychological and spiritual needs with material things. Of course, the opposite of over consumption, poverty, is no solution to either environmental or human problems. It is infinitely worse for people and bad for the natural world too. Dispossessed ( 教 教 教 教 教 教 教 教 教 ) peasants slash, and burn their way into the rain forests of Latin America, and hungry nomads (教教教教) turn their herds out onto fragile African grassland, reducing it to desert. If environmental destruction results when people have either too little or too much, we are left to wonder how much is enough .What level of consumption can the earth support ?When dose having more cease to add noticeably to human satisfaction? 36. The emergence of the affluent society after World War II . A) led to the reform of the retailing system B)resulted in the worship of consumerism C)gave rise to the dominance of the new egoism D)gave birth to a new generation of upper class consumers 37. Apart from enormous productivity, another important impetus to high consumption is A) the people's desire for a rise in their living standards B)the concept that one's success is measured by how much they consume C)the imbalance that has existed between production and consumption D)the conversion of the sale of goods into rituals 38. Why does the author say high consumption is a mixed blessing? A) Because poverty still exists in an affluent society. B) Because overconsumption won't last long due to unrestricted population growth. C) Because traditional rituals are often neglected in the process of modernization. D) Because moral values are sacrificed in pursuit of material satisfaction. 39. According to the passage, consumerist culture . A)will not alleviate poverty in wealthy countries B)will not aggravate environmental problems C)cannot thrive on a fragile economy D)cannot satisfy human spiritual needs 40. It can be inferred from the passage that . A)human spiritual needs should match material affluence B)whether high consumption should be encouraged is still an issue 50 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 C)how to keep consumption at a reasonable level remains a problem D)there is never an end to satisfying people's material needs Unit 9 Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Direction: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B) C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. Passage One Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage: In the villages of the English countryside there are still people who remember the good old days when no one bothered to lock their doors. There simply wasn’t any crime to worry about. Amazingly, these happy times appear still to be with us in the world’s biggest community. A new study by Dan Farmer, a gifted programmer, using an automated investigative program of his own called SATAN, shows that the owners of well over half of all World Wide Web sites have set up home without fitting locks to their doors. SATAN can try out a variety of well-known hacking ( 教教教 ) tricks on an Internet site without actually breaking in. Farmer has made the program publicly available, amid much criticism. A person with evil intent could use it to hunt down sites that are easy to burgle (教教…教教). But Farmer is very concerned about the need to alert the public to poor security and, so far, events have proved him right. SATAN has done more to alert people to the risks than cause new disorder. So is the Net becoming more secure? Far from it. In the early days, when you visited a Web site your browser simply looked at the content. Now the Web is full of tiny programs that automatically download when you look at a Web page, and run on your own machine. These programs could, if their authors wished, do all kinds of nasty things to your computer. At the same time, the Net is increasingly populated with spiders, worms, agents and other types of automated beasts designed to penetrate the sites and seek out and classify information. All these make wonderful tools for antisocial people who want to invade weak sites and cause damage. 51 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 But let’s look on the bright side. Given the lack of locks, the Internet is surely the world’s biggest (almost) crime-free society. Maybe that is because hackers are fundamentally honest. Or that there currently isn’t much to steal. Or because vandalism ( 教教 教 教 ) isn’t much fun unless you have a peculiar dislike for someone. Whatever the reason, let’s enjoy it while we can. But expect it all to change, and security to become the number one issue, when the most influential inhabitants of the Net are selling services they want to be paid for. 21. By saying “…owners of well over half of all World Wide Web sites have set up home without fitting locks to their doors” (Line 3-4, Para.2), the author means that ______. A) those happy times appear still to be with us B) there simply wasn’t any crime to worry about C) many sites are not well-protected D) hackers try out tricks on an Internet site without actually breaking in 22. SATAN, a program designed by Dan Farmer, can be used ______. A) to investigate the security of Internet sites B) to improve the security of the Internet system C) to prevent hackers from breaking into websites D) to download useful programs and information 23. Farmer’s program has been criticized by the public because ______. A) it causes damage to Net browsers B) it can break into Internet sites C) it can be used to cause disorder on all sites D) it can be used by people with evil intent 24. The author’s attitude toward SATAN is ______. A) enthusiastic B) critical C) positive D) indifferent 25. The author suggests in the last paragraph that ______. A) we should make full use of the Internet before security measures are strengthened B) we should alert the most influential businessmen to the importance of security C) influential businessmen should give priority to the improvement of Net security D) net inhabitants should not let security measures affect their joy of surfing the Internet Passage Two Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage: I came away from my years of teaching on tile college and university level with a conviction 52 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 that enactment ( 教 教 教 教 ), performance, dramatization are the most successful forms of teaching. Students must be incorporated, made, so far as possible, an integral part of the learning process. The notion that learning should have in it an element of inspired play would seem to the greater part of the academic establishment merely silly, but that is nonetheless the case. Of Ezekiel Cheever, the most famous schoolmaster of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, his onetime student Cotton Mather wrote that he so planned his lessons that his pupils “came to work as though they came to play,” and Alfred North Whitehead, almost three hundred years later, noted that a teacher should make his/her students “glad they were there.” Since, we are told, 80 to 90 percent of all instruction in the typical university is by the lecture method, we should give close attention to this form of education. There is, I think, much truth in Patricia Nelson Limerick’s observation that “lecturing is an unnatural act, an act for which God did not design humans. It is perfectly all right, now and then, for a human to be possessed by the urge to speak, and to speak while others remain silent. But to do this regularly, one hour and 15 minutes at a time… for one person to drag on while others sit in silence? ... I do not believe that this is what the Creator ... designed humans to do.” The strange, almost incomprehensible fact is that many professors, just as they feel obliged to write dully, believe that they should lecture dully. To show enthusiasm is to risk appearing unscientific, unobjective; it is to appeal to the students’ emotions rather than their intellect. Thus the ideal lecture is one filled with facts and read in an unchanged monotone. The cult (教教) of lecturing dully, like the cult of writing dully, goes back, of course, some years. Edward Shils, professor of sociology, recalls the professors he encountered at the University of Pennsylvania in his youth. They seemed “a priesthood, rather uneven in their merits but uniform in their bearing; they never referred to anything personal. Some read from old lecture notes and then haltingly explained the thumb-worn last lines. Others lectured from cards that had served for years, to judge by the worn edges ....The teachers began on time, ended on time, and left the room without saying a word more to their students, very seldom being detained by questioners .... The classes were not large, yet there was no discussion. No questions were raised in class, and there were no office hours.” 26. The author believes that a successful teacher should be able to ______. A) make dramatization an important aspect of students’ learning B) make inspired play an integral part of the learning process C) improve students’ learning performance D) make study just as easy as play 27. The majority of university professors prefer the traditional way of lecturing in the belief that ______. A) it draws the close attention of the students 53 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 B) it conforms in a way to the design of the Creator C) it presents course content in a scientific and objective manner D) it helps students to comprehend abstract theories more easily 28. What the author recommends in this passage is that ______. A) college education should be improved through radical measures B) more freedom of choice should be given to students in their studies C) traditional college lectures should be replaced by dramatized performances D) interaction should be encouraged in the process of teaching 29. By saying “They seemed ‘a priesthood, rather uneven in their merits but uniform in their bearing…’” (Lines 3-4, Para.4), the author means that ______. A) professors are a group of professionals that differ in their academic ability but behave in the same way B) professors are like priests wearing the same kind of black gown but having different roles to play C) there is no fundamental difference between professors and priests though they differ in their merits D) professors at the University of Pennsylvania used to wear black suits which made them look like priests 30. Whose teaching method is particularly commended by the author? A) Ezekiel Cheever’s. B) Alfred North Whitehead’s. C) Cotton Mather’s. D) Patricia Nelson Limerick’s. Passage Three Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage: Take the case of public education alone. The principal difficulty faced by the schools has been the tremendous increase in the number of pupils. This has been caused by the advance of the legal age for going into industry and the impossibility of finding a job even when the legal age has been reached. In view of the technological improvements in the last few years, business will require in the future proportionately fewer workers than ever before. The result will be still further raising of the legal age for going into employment, and still further difficulty in finding employment when that age has been attained. If we cannot put our children to work, we must put them in school. We may also be quite confident that the present trend toward a shorter day and a shorter week will be maintained. We have developed and shall continue to have a new leisure class. Already the public agencies for adult education are swamped by the tide that has swept over them since the depression began. They will be little better off when it is over. Their support must come from the taxpayer. It is surely too much to hope that these increases in the cost of public education can be borne 54 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 by the local communities. They cannot care for the present restricted and inadequate system. The local communities have failed in their efforts to cope with unemployment. They cannot expect to cope with public education on the scale on which we must attempt it. The answer to the problem of unemployment has been Federal relief. The answer to the problem of public education may have to be much the same, and properly so. If there is one thing in which the citizens of all parts of the country have an interest, it is in the decent education of the citizens of all parts of the country. Our income tax now goes in part to keep our neighbors alive. It may have to go in part as well to make our neighbors intelligent. We are now attempting to preserve the present generation through Federal relief of the destitute (教教). Only a people determined to ruin the next generation will refuse such Federal funds as public education may require. 31. What is the passage mainly about? A) How to persuade local communities to provide more funds. B) How to cope with the shortage of funds for public education. C) How to improve the public education system. D) How to solve the rising unemployment problem. 32. What is the reason for the increase in the number of students? A) The requirement of educated workers by business. B) Raising of the legal age forgoing to work. C) The trend toward a shorter workday. D) People’s concern for the future of the next generation. 33. The public agencies for adult education will be little better off because ______. A) the unemployed are too poor to continue their education B) a new leisure class has developed C) they are still suffering from the depression D) an increase in taxes could be a problem 34. According to the author, the answer to the problem of public education is that the Federal government _______. A) should allocate Federal funds for public education B) should demand that local communities provide support C) should raise taxes to meet the needs of public education D) should first of all solve the problem of unemployment 35. Why does the author say “Only a people determined to ruin the next generation will refuse such Federal funds as public education may require” (Lines 10-11, Para. 3)? A) Only by appropriating adequate Federal funds for education can the next generation have a bright future. B) Citizens of all parts of the country agree that the best way to support education is to use Federal funds. 55 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 C) People all over the country should make contributions to education in the interest of the next generation. D) Educated people are determined to use part of the Federal funds to help the poor. Passage Four Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage: A new high-performance contact lens under development at the department for applied physics at the University of Heidelberg will not only correct ordinary vision defects but will enhance normal night vision as much as five times, making people’s vision sharper than that of cats. Bille and his team work with an optical instrument called an active mirror — a device used in astronomical telescopes to spot newly emerging stars and far distant galaxies. Connected to a wave-front sensor that tracks and measures the course of a laser beam into the eye and back, the aluminum mirror detects the deficiencies of the cornea, the transparent protective layer covering the lens of the human eye. They highly precise data from the two instruments — which, Bille hopes, will one day be found at the opticians ( 教教教 ) all over the world — serve as a basis for the production of completely individualized contact lenses that correct and enhance the wearer’s vision. By day, Bille’s contact lenses will focus rays of light so accurately on the retina (教教教 ) that the image of a small leaf or the outline of a far distant tree will be formed with a sharpness that surpasses that of conventional vision aids by almost half a diopter ( 教教教 ). At night, the lenses have an even greater potential. “Because the new lens — in contrast to the already existing ones — also works when it’s dark and the pupil is wide open,” says Bille, “lens wearers will be able to identify a face at distance of 100 meters — 80 meters farther than they would normally be able to see. In his experiments night vision was enhanced by an even greater factor: in semi-darkness, test subjects could see up to 15 times better than without the lenses. Bille’s lenses are expected to reach the market in the year 2000, and one tentative plan is to use the Internet to transmit information on patients’ visual defects from the optician to the manufacturer, who will then produce and mail the contact lenses within a couple of days. The physicist expects the lenses to cost about a dollar a pair, about the same as conventional one-day disposable lenses. 36. The new contact lens is meant for ______. A) astronomical observations B) the night blind C) those with vision defects D) optical experiments 56 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 37. What do the two instruments mentioned in the second paragraph (Line 5) refer to? A) The astronomical telescope and the wave-front sensor. B) The aluminum mirror and the laser beam. C) The active mirror and the contact lens. D) The aluminum mirror and the wave-front sensor. 38. Individualized contact lenses (Line 7, Para.2) are lenses designed ______. A) to work like an astronomical telescope B) to suit the wearer’s specific needs C) to process extremely accurate data D) to test the wearer’s eyesight 39. According to Bille, with the new lenses the wearer’s vision ______. A) will be far better at night than in the daytime B) may be broadened about 15 times than without them C) can be better improved in the daytime than at night D) will be sharper by a much greater degree at night than in the daytime 40. Which of the following is true about Bille’s lenses? A) Their production process is complicated. B) They will be sold at a very low price. C) They have to be replaced every day. D) Purchase orders can be made through the Internet. Unit 10 Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. For years, doctors advised their patients that the only thing taking multivitamins does is give them expensive urine ( 教 ). After all, true vitamin deficiencies are practically unheard of in industrialized countries. Now it seems those doctors may have been wrong. The results of a 57 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 growing number of studies suggest that even a modest vitamin shortfall can be harmful to your health. Although proof of the benefits of multivitamins is still far from certain, the few dollars you spend on them is probably a good investment. Or at least that's the argument put forward in the New England Journal of Medicine. Ideally, say Dr. Walter Willett and Dr. Meir Stampfer of Harvard, all vitamin supplements would be evaluated in scientifically rigorous clinical trials. But those studies can take a long time and often raise more questions than they answer. At some point, while researchers work on figuring out where the truth lies, it just makes sense to say the potential benefit outweighs the cost. The best evidence to date concerns folate, one of the B vitamins. It's been proved to limit the number of defects in embryos ( 教教), and a recent trial found that folate in combination with vitamin B 12 and a form of B6 also decreases the re-blockage of arteries after surgical repair. The news on vitamin E has been more mixed. Healthy folks who take 400 international units daily for at least two years appear somewhat less likely to develop heart disease. But when doctors give vitamin E to patients who already have heart disease, the vitamin doesn't seem to help. It may turn out that vitamin E plays a role in prevention but cannot undo serious damage. Despite vitamin C's great popularity, consuming large amounts of it still has not been positively linked to any great benefit. The body quickly becomes saturated with C and simply excretes (教教) any excess. The multivitamins question boils down to this: Do you need to wait until all the evidence is in before you take them, or are you willing to accept that there's enough evidence that they don't hurt and could help? If the latter, there's no need to go to extremes and buy the biggest horse pills or the most expensive bottles. Large doses can cause trouble, including excessive bleeding and nervous system problems. Multivitamins are no substitute for exercise and a balanced diet, of course. As long as you understand that any potential benefit is modest and subject to further refinement, taking a daily multivitamin makes a lot of sense. 21. At one time doctors discouraged taking multivitamins because they believed that multivitamins ____. A) could not easily be absorbed by the human body B) were potentially harmful to people's health C) were too expensive for daily consumption D) could not provide any cure for vitamin deficiencies 22. According to the author, clinical trials of vitamin supplements ____. A) often result in misleading conclusions B) take time and will not produce conclusive results C) should be conducted by scientists on a larger scale 58 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 D) appear to be a sheer waste of time and resources 23. It has been found that vitamin E _____. A) should be taken by patients regularly and persistently B) can effectively reduce the recurrence of heart disease C) has a preventive but not curative effect on heart disease D) should be given to patients with heart disease as early as possible 24. It can be seen that large doses of multivitamins _____. A) may bring about serious side effects B) may help prevent excessive bleeding C) are likely to induce the blockage of arteries D) are advisable for those with vitamin deficiencies 25. The author concludes the passage with the advice that _____. A) the benefit of daily multivitamin intake outweighs that of exercise and a balanced diet B) it's risky to take multivitamins without knowing their specific function C) the potential benefit of multivitamins can never be overestimated D) it's reasonable to take a rational dose of multivitamins daily Passage Two Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. Some futurologists have assumed that the vast upsurge ( 教教 ) of women in the workforce may portend a rejection of marriage. Many women, according to this hypothesis, would rather work than marry. The converse ( 教教 ) of this concern is that the prospects of becoming a multi-paycheck household could encourage marriages. In the past, only the earnings and financial prospects of the man counted in the marriage decision. Now, however, the earning ability of a woman can make her more attractive as a marriage partner. Data show that economic downturns tend to postpone marriage because the parties cannot afford to establish a family or are concerned about rainy days ahead. As the economy rebounds, the number of marriages also rises. Coincident with the increase in women working outside the home is the increase in divorce rates. Yet, it may be wrong to jump to any simple cause-and-effect conclusions. The impact of a wife's work on divorce is no less cloudy than its impact on marriage decisions. The realization that she can be a good provider may increase the chances that a working wife will choose divorce over an unsatisfactory marriage. But the reverse is equally plausible. Tensions grounded in financial problems often play a key role in ending a marriage. Given high unemployment, inflationary problems, and slow growth in real earnings, a working wife can increase household income and relieve some of these pressing financial burdens. By raising a family's standard of living, a working wife may strengthen her family's financial and emotional stability. 59 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Psychological factors also should be considered. For example, a wife blocked from a career outside the home may feel caged in the house. She may view her only choice as seeking a divorce. On the other hand, if she can find fulfillment through work outside the home, work and marriage can go together to create a stronger and more stable union. Also, a major part of women's inequality in marriage has been due to the fact that, in most cases, men have remained the main breadwinners. With higher earning capacity and status occupations outside of the home comes the capacity to exercise power within file family. A working wife may rob a husband of being the master of the house. Depending upon how the couple reacts to these new conditions, it could create a stronger equal partnership or it could create new insecurities. 26. The word "portend" (Line 2, Para. 1) is closest in meaning to “_____”. A) defy C) suffer from B) signal D) result from 27. It is said in the passage that when the economy slides, _____. A) men would choose working women as their marriage partners B) more women would get married to seek financial security C) even working women would worry about their marriages D) more people would prefer to remain single for the time being 28. If women find fulfillment through work outside the home, _____. A) they are more likely to dominate their marriage partners B) their husbands are expected to do more housework C) their marriage ties can be strengthened D)they tend to put their career before marriage 29. One reason why women with no career may seek a divorce is that _____. A) they feel that they have been robbed of their freedom B) they are afraid of being bossed around by their husbands C) they feel that their partners fail to live up to their expectations D) they tend to suspect their husbands' loyalty to their marriage 30. Which of the following statements can best summarize the author's view in the passage? A) The stability of marriage and the divorce rate may reflect the economic situation of the country. B) Even when economically independent, most women have to struggle for real equality in marriage. C) In order to secure their marriage women should work outside the home and remain independent D) The impact of the growing female workforce on marriage varies from case to case. 60 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Passage Three Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage, For most thinkers since the Greek philosophers, it was self-evident that there is something called human nature, something that constitutes the essence of man. There were various views about what constitutes it, but there was agreement that such an essence exists -- that is to say, that there is something by virtue of which man is man. Thus man was defined as a rational being, as a social animal, an animal that can make tools, or a symbol-making animal. More recently, this traditional view has begun to be questioned. One reason for this change was the increasing emphasis given to the historical approach to man. An examination of the history of humanity suggested that man in our epoch is so different from man in previous times that it seemed unrealistic to assume that men in every age have had in common something that can be called "human nature." The historical approach was reinforced, particularly in the United States, by studies in the field of cultural anthropology ( 教教教 ). The study of primitive peoples has discovered such a diversity of customs, values, feelings, and thoughts that many anthropologists arrived at the concept that man is born as a blank sheet of paper on which each culture writes its text. Another factor contributing to the tendency to deny the assumption of a fixed human nature was that the concept has so often been abused as a shield behind which the most inhuman acts are committed. In the name of human nature, for example, Aristotle and most thinkers up to the eighteenth century defended slavery. Or in order to prove the rationality and necessity of the capitalist form of society, scholars have tried to make a case for acquisitiveness, competitiveness, and selfishness as innate ( 教教教 ) human traits. Popularly, one refers cynically to "human nature" in accepting the inevitability of such undesirable human behavior as greed, murder, cheating and lying. Another reason for skepticism about the concept of human nature probably lies in the influence of evolutionary thinking. Once man came to be seen as developing in the process of evolution, the idea of a substance which is contained in his essence seemed untenable. Yet I believe it is precisely from an evolutionary standpoint that we can expect new insight into the problem of the nature of man. 31. The traditional view of "human nature" was strongly challenged by _____. A) the emergence of the evolutionary theory B) the historical approach to man C) new insight into human behavior D) the philosophical analysis of slavery 32. According to the passage, anthropologists believe that human beings _____. A) have some traits in common B) are born with diverse cultures 61 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 C) are born without a fixed nature D) change their characters as they grow up 33. The author mentioned Aristotle, a great ancient thinker, in order to _____. A) emphasize that he contributed a lot to defining the concept of "human nature" B) show that the concept of "human nature" was used to justify social evils C) prove that he had a profound influence on the concept of "human nature" D) support the idea that some human traits are acquired 34. The word "untenable" (Line 3) in the last paragraph of the passage most probably means _____. A) invaluable C) changeable B) imaginable D) indefensible 35. Most philosophers believed that human nature _____. A) is the quality distinguishing man from other animals B) consists of competitiveness and selfishness C) is something partly innate and partly acquired D) consists of rationality and undesirable behavior Passage Four Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage. Richard Satava, program manager for advanced medical technologies, has been a driving force in bringing virtual reality to medicine, where computers create a "virtual" or simulated environment for surgeons and other medical practitioners (教教教). "With virtual reality we'll be able to put a surgeon in every trench," said Satava. He envisaged a time when soldiers who are wounded fighting overseas are put in mobile surgical units equipped with computers. The computers would transmit images of the soldiers to surgeons back in the U.S. The surgeons would look at the soldier through virtual reality helmets ( 教教 ) that contain a small screen displaying the image of the wound. The doctors would guide robotic instruments in the battlefield mobile surgical unit that operate on the soldier. Although Satava's vision may be years away from standard operating procedure, scientists are progressing toward virtual reality surgery. Engineers at an international organization in California are developing a tele-operating device. As surgeons watch a three-dimensional image of the surgery, they move instruments that are connected to a computer, which passes their movements to robotic instruments that perform the surgery. The computer provides, feedback to the surgeon on force, textures, and sound. These technological wonders may not yet be part of the community hospital setting but increasingly some of the machinery is finding its way into civilian medicine. At Wayne State University Medical School, surgeon Lucia Zamorano takes images of the brain from computerized 62 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 scans and uses a computer program to produce a 3-D image. She can then maneuver the 3-D image on the computer screen to map the shortest, least invasive surgical path to the rumor ( 教教 ). Zamorano is also using technology that attaches a probe to surgical instruments so that she can track their positions. While cutting away a tumor deep in the brain, she watches the movement of her surgical tools in a computer graphics image of the patient's brain taken before surgery. During these procedures -- operations that are done through small cuts in the body in which a miniature camera and surgical tools are maneuvered -- surgeons are wearing 3-D glasses for a better view. And they are commanding robot surgeons to cut away tissue more accurately than human surgeons can. Satava says, "We are in the midst of a fundamental change in the field of medicine." 36. According to Richard Satava, the application of virtual reality to medicine _____. A) will enable surgeons to be physically present on every battlefield B) can raise the spirits of soldiers wounded on the battlefield C) will greatly improve medical conditions on the battlefield D) can shorten the time for operations on soldiers wounded on the battlefield 37. Richard Satava has visions of _____. A) using a remote-control technique to treat wounded soldiers fighting overseas B) wounded soldiers being saved by doctors wearing virtual reality helmets on the battlefield C) wounded soldiers being operated on by specially trained surgeons D) setting up mobile surgical units overseas 38. How is virtual reality surgery performed? A) It is performed by a computer-designed high precision device. B) Surgeons wear virtual reality helmets to receive feedback provided by a computer. C) Surgeons move robotic instruments by means of a computer linked to them. D) A 3-D image records the movements of the surgeons during the operation. 39. During virtual reality operations, the surgeon can have a better view of the cuts in the body because _____. A) he is looking at the cuts on a computer screen B) the cuts can be examined from different angles C) the cuts have been highly magnified D) he is wearing 3-D glasses 40. Virtual reality operations are an improvement on conventional surgery in that they _____. A) cause less pain to the wounded B) allow the patient to recover more quickly C) will make human surgeons' work less tedious D) are done by robot surgeons with greater precision 63 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Unit 11 Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. It was the worst tragedy in maritime (教教教) history, six times more deadly than the Titanic. When the German cruise ship Wilhelm Gustloff was hit by torpedoes ( 教教) fired from a Russian submarine in the final winter of World War II, more than 10,000 people - mostly women, children and old people fleeing the final Red Army push into Nazi Germany - were packed aboard. An ice storm had turned the decks into frozen sheets that sent hundreds of families sliding into the sea as the ship tilted and began to go down. Others desperately tried to put lifeboats down. Some who succeeded fought off those in the water who had the strength to try to claw their way aboard. Most people froze immediately. Tll never forget the screams," says Christa Ntitzmann, 87, one of the 1,200 survivors. She recalls watching the ship, brightly lit, slipping into its dark grave - and into seeming nothingness, rarely mentioned for more than half a century. Now Germany's Nobel Prize-winning author Gtinter Grass has revived the memory of the 9,000 dead, including more than 4,000 children - with his latest novel Crab Walk, published last month. The book, which will be out in English next year, doesn't dwell on the sinking; its heroine is a pregnant young woman who survives the catastrophe only to say later: "Nobody wanted to hear about it, not here in the West (of Germany) and not at all in the East." The reason was obvious. As Grass put it in a recent interview with the weekly Die Woche: "Because the crimes we Germans are responsible for were and are so dominant, we didn't have the energy left to tell of our own sufferings.'' The long silence about the sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff was probably unavoidable - and necessary. By unreservedly owning up to their country's monstrous crimes in the Second World War, Germans have managed to win acceptance abroad, marginalize ( 教 ... 教 教 教 ) the neo- Nazis at home and make peace with their neighbors. Today's unified Germany is more prosperous and stable than at any time in its long, troubled history. For that, a half century of willful forgetting about painful memories like the German Titanic was perhaps a reasonable price to pay. But even 64 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 the most politically correct Germans believe that they' ye now earned the right to discuss the full historical record. Not to equate German suffering with that of its victims, but simply to acknowledge a terrible tragedy. 21. Why does the author say the sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff was the worst tragedy in maritime history? A) It was attacked by Russian torpedoes. B) Most of its passengers were frozen to death. C) Its victims were mostly women and children. D) It caused the largest number of casualties. 22. Hundreds of families dropped into the sea when A) a strong ice storm tilted the ship B) the cruise ship sank all of a sudden C) the badly damaged ship leaned toward one side D) the frightened passengers fought desperately for lifeboats 23. The Wilhelm Gustloff tragedy was little talked about for more than half a century because Germans A) were eager to win international acceptance B) felt guilty for their crimes in World War II C) ad been pressured to keep silent about it D) were afraid of offending their neighbors 24. How does Gunter Grass revive the memory of the Wilhelm Gustloff tragedy? A) By presenting the horrible scene of the torpedo attack. B) By describing the ship's sinking in great detail. C) By giving an interview to the weekly Die Woche. D) By depicting the survival of a young pregnant woman. 25. It can be learned from the passage that Germans no longer think that A) they will be misunderstood if they talk about the Wilhelm Gustloff tragedy B) the Wilhelm Gustloff tragedy is a reasonable price to pay for the nation's past misdeeds C) Germany is responsible for the horrible crimes it committed in World War II D) it is wrong to equate their sufferings with those of other countries Passage Two Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. Given the lack of fit between gifted students and their schools, it is not surprising that such students often have little good to say 'about their school experience. In one study of 400 adul who had achieved distinction in all areas of life, researchers found that three-fifths of these individuals either did badly in school or were unhappy in school. Few MacArthur Prize fellows, winners of the MacArthur Award for creative accomplishment, had good things to say about their 65 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 precollegiate schooling if they had not been placed in advanced programs. Anecdotal ( 教教教教) reports support this. Pablo Picasso, Charles Darwin, Mark Twain, Oliver Goldsmith, and William Butler Yeats all disliked school. So did Winston Churchill, who almost failed out of Harrow, an elite British school. About Oliver Goldsmith, one of his teachers remarked, "Never was so dull a boy." Often these children realize that they know more than their teachers, and their teachers often feel that these children are arrogant, inattentive, or unmotivated. Some of these gifted people may have done poorly in school because their, gifts were not scholastic. Maybe we can account for Picasso in this way. But most fared poorly in school not because they lacked ability but because they found school unchallenging and consequently lost interest. Yeats described the lack of fit between his mind and school: "Because I had found it difficult to attend to anything less interesting than my own thoughts, I was difficult to teach." As noted earlier, gifted children of all kinds tend to be strong-willed nonconformists. Nonconformity and stubbornness (and Yeats's level of arrogance and self-absorption) are likely to lead to Conflicts with teachers. When highly gifted students in any domain talk about what was important to the development of their abilities, they are far more likely to mention their families than their schools or teachers. A writing prodigy ( 教教 ) studied by David Feldman and Lynn Goldsmith was taught far more about writing by his journalist father than his English teacher. High-IQ children, in Australia studied by Miraca Gross had much more positive feelings about their families than their schools. About half of the mathematicians studied by Benjamin Bloom had little good to say about school. They all did well in school and took honors classes when available, and some skipped grades. 26. The main point the author is making about schools is that A) they should satisfy the needs of students from different family backgrounds B) they are often incapable of catering to the needs of talented students C) they should organize their classes according to the students' ability D) they should enroll as many gifted students as possible 27. The author quotes the remarks of one of Oliver Goldsmith's teachers A) to provide support for his argument B) to illustrate the strong will of some gifted children C) to explain how dull students can also be successful D) to show how poor Oliver's performance was at school 28. Pablo Picasso is listed among the many gifted children who A) paid no attention to their teachers in class B) contradicted their teachers much too often C) could not cope with their studies at school successfully D) behaved arrogantly and stubbornly in the presence of their teachers 29. Many gifted people attributed their success. A) mainly to parental help and their education at home B) both to school instruction and to their parents' coaching 66 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 C) more to their parents' encouragement than to school training D) less to their systematic education than to their talent 30. The root cause of many gifted students having bad memories of their school years is that A) their nonconformity brought them a lot of trouble B) they were seldom praised by their teachers C) school courses failed to inspire or motivate them D) teachers were usually far stricter than their parents Passage Three Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage. When we worry about who might be spying on our private lives, we usually think about the Federal agents. But the private sector outdoes the government every time. It's Linda Tripp, not the FBI, who is facing charges under Maryland's laws against secret telephone taping. It's our banks, not the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), that pass our private financial data to telemarketing fin'ms. Consumer activists are pressing Congress for better privacy laws without much result so far. The legislators lean toward letting business people track our financial habits virtually at will. As an example of what's going on, consider U.S. Bancorp, which was recently sued for deceptive practices by the state of Minnesota. According to the lawsuit, the bank supplied a telemarketer called MemberWorks with sensitive customer data such as names,, ph'one numbers, bank-account and credit-card numbers, Social Security numbers, account balances and credit limits. With these customer lists in hand, MemberWorks started dialing for dollars - selling dental plans, videogames, computer software and other products and services. Customers who accepted a "free trial offer" had, 30 days to cancel. If the deadline passed, they were charged automatically through their bank or credit-card accounts. U.S. Bancorp collected a share of the revenues. Customers were doubly deceived, the lawsuit claims. They. didn't know that the bank was giving account numbers to MemberWorks. And if customers asked, they were led to think the answer was no. The state sued MemberWorks separately for deceptive selling. Thecompany de'hies that it did anything wrong. For its part, U.S. Bancorp settled without admitting any mistakes. But it agreed to stop exposing its customers to nonfinancial products sold by outside firms. A few top banks decided to do the same. Many other banks will still do business with MemberWorks and similar firms. And banks will still be mining data from your account in order to sell you financial products, including things of little value, such as credit insurance and credit-card protection plans. You have almost no protection from businesses that use your personal accounts for profit. For 67 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 example, no federal law shields "transaction and experience" information - mainly the details of your bank and credit-card accounts. Social Security numbers are for sale by private fa'ms. They've generally agreed not to sell to the public. But to businesses, the numbers are an open book. Selfregulation doesn't work. A firm might publish a privacy-protection policy, but who enforces it? Take U.S. Bancorp again. Customers were told, in writing, that "all personal information you supply to us will be considered confidential." Then it sold your data to MemberWorks. The bank even claims that it doesn't "sell" your data at all. It merely "shares" it and reaps a profit. Now you know. 31. Contrary to popular belief, the author finds that spying on people's privacy A) is mainly carried out by means of secret taping B) has been intensified with the help of the IRS C) is practiced exclusively by the FBI D) is more prevalent in business circles 32. We know from the passage that A) legislators are acting to pass a law to provide better privacy protection B) most states are turning a blind eye to the deceptive practices of private businesses C) the state of Minnesota is considering drawing up laws to protect private information D) lawmakers are inclined to give a free hand to businesses to inquire into customers' buying habits 33. When the "free trial" deadline is over, you'll be charged without notice for a product or service if A) you fail to cancel it within the specified period B) you happen to reveal your credit card number C) you find the product or service unsatisfactory D) you fail to apply for extension of the deadline 34. Businesses do not regard information concerning personal bank accounts as private because A) its revelation will do no harm to consumers under the current protection policy B) it is considered "transaction and experience" information unprotected by law C) it has always been considered an open secret by the general public D) its sale can be brought under control through self-regulation 35. We can infer from the passage that A) banks will have to change their ways of doing business B) privacy protection laws will soon be enforced C) consumers' privacy will continue to be invaded D) "free trial" practice will eventually be banned 68 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Passage Four Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage. It's hardly news that the immigration system is a mess. Foreign nationals have long been slipping across the border with fake papers, and visitors who arrive in the U.S. legitimately often overstay their legal welcome without being punished. But since Sept. 11, it's become clear that terrorists have been shrewdly factoring the weaknesses of our system into their plans. In addition to their mastery of forging passports, at least three of the 19 Sept. 11 hijackers ( 教教教 ) were here on expired visas. That's been a safe bet until now. The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) ( 教教教教教 ) lacks the resources, and apparently the inclination, to keep track of the estimated 2 million foreigners who have intentionally overstayed their welcome. But this laxness ( 教教 ) toward immigration fraud may be about to change. Congress has already taken some modest steps. The U.S.A. Patriot Act, passed in the wake of the Sept. 11 tragedy, requires the FBI, the Justice Department, the State Department and the INS to share more data, which will make it easier to stop watch-listed terrorists at the border. But what's really needed, critics say, is even tougher laws and more resources aimed at tightening up border security. Reformers are calling for a rollback of rules that hinder law enforcement.They also want the INS to hire hundreds more border patrol agents and investigators to keep illegal immigrants out and to track them down once they're here. Reformers also want to see the INS set up a database to monitor whether visa holders actually leave the country when they are required to. All these proposed changes were part of a new border-security bill that passed the House of Representatives but died in the Senate last week. Before Sept. 11, legislation of this kind had been blocked by two powerful lobbies: universities, which rely on tuition from foreign students who could be kept out by the new law, and business, which relies on foreigners for cheap labor. Since the attacks, they've backed off. The bill would have passed this time but for congressional maneuverings and is expected to be reintroduced and to pass next year. Also on the agenda for next year: a proposal, backed by some influential law-makers, to split the INS into two agencies - a good cop that would tend to service functions like processing citizenship papers and a bad cop that would concentrate on border inspections, deportation and other functions. One reason for the division, supporters say, is that the INS has in recent years become too focused on serving tourists and immigrants. After the Sept. l 1 tragedy, the INS should pay more attention to serving the millions of ordinary Americans who rely on the nation's border security to protect them from terrorist attacks. 36. Terrorists have obviously taken advantage of A) the legal privileges granted to foreigners 69 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 B) the excessive hospitality of the American people C) the irresponsibility of the officials at border checkpoints D) the low efficiency of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 37. We learn from the passage that coordinated efforts will be made by various U.S. government agencies to A) refuse the renewing of expired visas B) ward off terrorist suspects at the border C) prevent the forgery of immigration papers D). limit the number Of immigrants to the U.S. 38. It can be inferred from the passage that before Sept. 11, aliens with expired visas A) might have them extended without trouble B) would be closely watched by FBI agents C) might stay on for as long as they wished D) would live in constant fear of deportation 39. It is believed by many that all these years the INS A) has been serving two contradictory functions B) has been too liberal in granting visas to tourists and immigrants indiscriminately C) has over-emphasized its service functions at the expense of the nation's security D) has ignored the pleas of the two powerful lobbies 40. Before Sept. 11, the U.S. Congress had been unable to pass stricter immigration laws because A) they might have kept away foreign students and cheap labor B) it was difficult to coordinate the efforts of the congressmen C) education and business circles cared little about national security D) resources were not available for their enforcement Unit 12 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One 70 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. I had an experience some years ago which taught me something about the ways in which people make a bad situation worse by blaming themselves. One January, I had to officiate at two funerals on successive days for two elderly women in my community. Both had died “full of years,” as the Bible would say; both yielded to the normal wearing out of the body after a long and full life. Their homes happened to be near each other, so I paid condolence ( 教教 ) calls on the two families on the same afternoon. At the first home, the son of the deceased ( 教教教 ) woman said to me, “If only I had sent my mother to Florida and gotten her out of this cold and snow, she would be alive today. It’s my fault that she died.” At the second home, the son of the other deceased woman said, “If only I hadn’t insisted on my mother’s going to Florida, she would be alive today. That long airplane ride, the abrupt change of climate, was more than she could take. It’s my fault that she’s dead.” When things don’t turn out as we would like them to, it is very tempting to assume that had we done things differently, the story would have had a happier ending. Priests know that any time there is a death, the survivors will feel guilty. Because the course of action they took turned out badly, they believe that the opposite course-keeping Mother at home, postponing the operation— would have turned out better. After all, how could it have turned out any worse? There seem to be two elements involved in our readiness to feel guilt. The first is our pressing need to believe that the world makes sense, that there is a cause for every effect and a reason for everything that happens. That leads us to find patterns and connections both where they really exist and where they exist only in our minds. The second element is the notion that we are the cause of what happens, especially the bad things that happen. It seems to be a short step from believing that every event has a cause to believing that every disaster is our fault. The roots of this feeling may lie in our childhood. Psychologists speak of the infantile myth of omnipotence ( 教 教 ). A baby comes to think that the world exists to meet his needs, and that he makes everything happen in it. He wakes up in the morning and summons the rest of the world to its tasks. He cries, and someone comes to attend to him. When he is hungry, people feed him, and when he is wet, people change him. Very often, we do not completely outgrow that infantile notion that our wishes cause things to happen. 21. What is said about the two deceased elderly women? A) They lived out a natural life. B) They died due to lack of care by family members. C) They died of exhaustion after the long plane ride. D) They weren’t accustomed to the change in weather. 22. The author had to conduct the two women’s funerals probably because ________. A) he wanted to console the two families B) he was an official from the community 71 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 C) he had great sympathy for the deceased D) he was priest of the local church 23. People feel guilty for the deaths of their loved ones because ________. A) they couldn’t find a better way to express their grief B) they believe that they were responsible C) they had neglected the natural course of events D) they didn’t know things often turn out in the opposite direction 24. In the context of the passage, “... the world makes sense” (Line 2, Para, 4) probably means that ________. A) everything in the world is predetermined B) the world can be interpreted in different ways C) there’s an explanation for everything in the world D) we have to be sensible in order to understand the world 25. People have been made to believe since infancy that ________. A) everybody is at their command B) life and death is an unsolved mystery C) every story should have a happy ending D) their wishes are the cause of everything that happens Passage Two Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. Frustrated with delays in Sacramento, Bay Area officials said Thursday they planned to take matters into their own hands to regulate the region’s growing pile of electronic trash. A San Jose councilwoman and a San Francisco supervisor said they would propose local initiatives aimed at controlling electronic waste if the California law-making body fails to act on two bills stalled in the Assembly. They are among a growing number of California cities and counties that have expressed the same intention. Environmentalists and local governments are increasingly concerned about the toxic hazard posed by old electronic devices and the cost of safely recycling those products. An estimated 6 million televisions and computers are stocked in California homes, and an additional 6,000 to 7,000 computers become outdated every day. The machines contain high levels of lead and other hazardous substances, and are already banned from California landfills (教教教教教). Legislation by Senator Byron Sher would require consumers to pay a recycling fee of up to $30 on every new machine containing a cathode ( 教教 ) ray tube. Used in almost all video monitors and televisions, those devices contain four to eight pounds of lead each. The fees would go toward setting up recycling programs, providing grants to non-profit agencies that reuse the tubes and rewarding manufacturers that encourage recycling. 72 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 A separate bill by Los Angeles-area Senator Gloria Romero would require high-tech manufacturers to develop programs to recycle so-called e-waste. If passed, the measures would put California at the forefront of national efforts to manage the refuse of the electronic age. But high-tech groups, including the Silicon Valley Manufacturing Group and the American Electronics Association, oppose the measures, arguing that fees of up to $30 will drive consumers to online, out-of-state retailers. “What really needs to occur is consumer education. Most consumers are unaware they’re not supposed to throw computers in the trash,” said Roxanne Gould, vice president of government relations for the electronics association. Computer recycling should be a local effort and part of residential waste collection programs, she added. Recycling electronic waste is a dangerous and specialized matter, and environmentalists maintain the state must support recycling efforts and ensure that the job isnt contracted to unscrupulous (教教教教教) junk dealers who send the toxic parts overseas. “The graveyard of the high-tech revolution is ending up in rural China,” said Ted Smith, director of the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition. His group is pushing for an amendment to Sher’s bill that would prevent the export of e-waste. 26. What step were Bay Area officials going to take regarding e-waste disposal? A) Exert pressure on manufacturers of electronic devices. B) Lay down relevant local regulations themselves. C) Lobby the lawmakers of the California Assembly. D) Rally support to pass the stalled bills. 27. The two bills stalled in the California Assembly both concern ________. A) regulations on dumping hazardous substances into landfills B) the sale of used electronic devices to foreign countries C) the funding of local initiatives to reuse electronic trash D) the reprocessing of the huge amounts of electronic waste in the state 28. Consumers are not supposed to throw used computers in the trash because ________. A) they contain large amounts of harmful substances B) this is banned by the California government C) some parts may be recycled for use elsewhere D) unscrupulous dealers will retrieve them for profit 29. High-tech groups believe that if an extra $30 is charged on every TV or computer purchased in California, consumers will ________. A) abandon online shopping B) buy them from other states C) strongly protest against such a charge 73 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 D) hesitate to upgrade their computers 30. We learn from the passage that much of California’s electronic waste has been ________. A) collected by non-profit agencies B) dumped into local landfills C) exported to foreign countries D) recycled by computer manufacturers Passage Three Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage. Throughout the nation’s more than 15,000 school districts, widely differing approaches to teaching science and math have emerged. Though there can be strength in diversity, a new international analysis suggests that this variability has instead contributed to lackluster ( 教 教 教 ) achievement scores by U.S. children relative to their peers in other developed countries. Indeed, concludes William H. Schmidt of Michigan State University, who led the new analysis, “no single intellectually coherent vision dominates U.S. educational practice in math or science.” The reason, he said, “is because the system is deeply and fundamentally flawed.” The new analysis, released this week by the National Science Foundation in Arlington, Va., is based on data collected from about 50 nations as part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study. Not only do approaches to teaching science and math vary among individual U.S. communities, the report finds, but there appears to be little strategic focus within a school district’s curricula, its textbooks, or its teachers’ activities. This contrasts sharply with the coordinated national programs of most other countries. On average, U.S. students study more topics within science and math than their international counterparts do. This creates an educational environment that “is a mile wide and an inch deep,” Schmidt notes. For instance, eighth graders in the United States cover about 33 topics in math versus just 19 in Japan. Among science courses, the international gap is even wider. U.S. curricula for this age level resemble those of a small group of countries including Australia, Thailand, Iceland, and Bulgaria. Schmidt asks whether the United States wants to be classed with these nations, whose educational systems “share our pattern of splintered ( 教教教教教 ) visions” but which are not economic leaders. The new report “couldn’t come at a better time,” says Gerald Wheeler, executive director of the National Science Teachers Association in Arlington. “The new National Science Education Standards provide that focused vision,” including the call “to do less, but in greater depth.” Implementing the new science standards and their math counterparts will be the challenge, he and Schmidt agree, because the decentralized responsibility for education in the United States requires that any reforms be tailored and instituted one community at a time. In fact, Schmidt argues, reforms such as these proposed national standards “face an almost 74 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 impossible task, because even though they are intellectually coherent, each becomes only one more voice in the babble (教教教).” 31. According to the passage, the teaching of science and math in America is ________. A) focused on tapping students’ potential B) characterized by its diversity C) losing its vitality gradually D) going downhill in recent years 32. The fundamental flaw of American school education is that ________. A) it lacks a coordinated national program B) it sets a very low academic standard for students C) it relies heavily on the initiative of individual teachers D) it attaches too much importance to intensive study of school subjects 33. By saying that the U.S. educational environment is “a mile wide and an inch deep” (Line 2, Para. 5), the author means U.S. educational practice ________. A) lays stress on quality at the expense of quantity B) offers an environment for comprehensive education C) encourages learning both in depth and in scope D) scratches the surface of a wide range of topics 34. The new National Science Education Standards are good news in that they will ________. A) provide depth to school science education B) solve most of the problems in school teaching C) be able to meet the demands of the community D) quickly dominate U.S. educational practice 35. Putting the new science and math standards into practice will prove difficult because ________. A) there is always controversy in educational circles B) not enough educators have realized the necessity for doing so C) school districts are responsible for making their own decisions D) many schoolteachers challenge the acceptability of these standards Passage Four Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage. “I’ve never met a human worth cloning,” says cloning expert Mark Westhusin from his lab at Texas A&M University. “It’s a stupid endeavor.” That’s an interesting choice of adjective, coming 75 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 from a man who has spent millions of dollars trying to clone a 13-year-old dog named Missy. So far, he and his team have not succeeded, though they have cloned two cows and expect to clone a cat soon. They just might succeed in cloning Missy this spring—or perhaps not for another 5 years. It seems the reproductive system of man’s best friend is one of the mysteries of modern science. Westhusin’s experience with cloning animals leaves him upset by all this talk of human cloning. In three years of work on the Missy project, using hundreds upon hundreds of dog’s eggs, the A&M team has produced only a dozen or so embryos ( 教教 ) carrying Missy’s DNA. None have survived the transfer to a surrogate (教教教) mother. The wastage of eggs and the many spontaneously aborted fetuses ( 教 ) may be acceptable when you’re dealing with cats or bulls, he argues, but not with humans. “Cloning is incredibly inefficient, and also dangerous,” he says. Even so, dog cloning is a commercial opportunity, with a nice research payoff. Ever since Dolly the sheep was cloned in 1997, Westhusin’s phone has been ringing with people calling in hopes of duplicating their cats and dogs, cattle and horses. “A lot of people want to clone pets, especially if the price is right,” says Westhusin. Cost is no obstacle for Missy’s mysterious billionaire owner; he’s put up $3.7 million so far to fund A&M’s research. Contrary to some media reports, Missy is not dead. The owner wants a twin to carry on Missy’s fine qualities after she does die. The prototype is, by all accounts, athletic, good-natured and supersmart. Missy’s master does not expect an exact copy of her. He knows her clone may not have her temperament. In a statement of purpose, Missy’s owner and the A&M team say they are “both looking forward to studying the ways that her clones differ from Missy.” Besides cloning a great dog, the project may contribute insight into the old question of nature vs, nurture. It could also lead to the cloning of special rescue dogs and many endangered animals. However, Westhusin is cautious about his work. He knows that even if he gets a dog pregnant, the offspring, should they survive, will face the problems shown at birth by other cloned animals: abnormalities like immature lungs and heart and weight problems~ “Why would you ever want to clone humans,Westhusin asks, “when we’re not even close to getting it worked out in animals yet?” 36. By “stupid endeavor” (Line 2, Para. 1), Westhusin means to say that ________. A) animal cloning is not worth the effort at all B) animal cloning is absolutely impractical C) human cloning should be done selectively D) human cloning is a foolish undertaking 37. What does the first paragraph tell us about Westhusin’s dog cloning project? A) Its success is already in sight. 76 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 B) Its outcome remains uncertain. C) It is doomed to utter failure. D) It is progressing smoothly. 38. By cloning Missy, Mark Westhusin hopes to ________. A) study the possibility of cloning humans B) search for ways to modify. its temperament C) examine the reproductive system of the dog species D) find out the differences between Missy and its clones 39. We learn from the passage that animal clones are likely to have ________. A) a bad temper B) immune deficiency C) defective organs D) an abnormal shape 40. It can be seen that present cloning techniques ________. A) still have a long way to go before reaching maturity B) have been widely used in saving endangered species C) provide insight into the question of nature vs. nurture D) have proved quite adequate for the cloning of humans Unit 13 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage. Low-level slash-and-burn farming doesn’t harm rainforest. On the contrary, it helps farmers and improves forest soils. This is the unorthodox view of a German soil scientist who has shown that burnt clearings in the Amazon, dating back more than 1,000 years, helped create patches of rich, fertile soil that farmers still benefit from today. Most rainforest soils are thin and poor because they lack minerals and because the heat and heavy rainfall destroy most organic matter in the soils within four years of it reaching the forest floor. This means topsoil contains few of the ingredients needed for long-term successful farming. 77 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 But Bruno Glaser, a soil scientist of the University of Bayreuth, has studied unexpected patches of fertile soils in the central Amazon. These soils contain lots of organic matter. Glaser has shown that most of this fertile organic matter comes from “black carbon”—the organic particles from camp fires and charred ( 教教 教教 ) wood left over from thousands of years of slash-and-burn farming. “The soils, known as Terra Preta, contained up to 70times more black carbon than the surrounding soil, “says Glaser. Unburnt vegetation rots quickly, but black carbon persists in the soil for many centuries. Radiocarbon dating shows that the charred wood in Terra Preta soils is typically more than 1,000 years old. “Slash-and-burn farming can be good for soils provided it doesn’t completely burn all the vegetation, and leaves behind charred wood,” says Glaser. “It can be better than manure ( 教 教 ).” Burning the forest just once can leave behind enough black carbon to keep the soil fertile for thousands of years. And rainforests easily regrow after small-scale clearing. Contrary to the conventional view that human activities damage the environment, Glaser says: “Black carbon combined with human wastes is responsible for the richness of Terra Preta soils.”Terra Preta soils turn up in large patches all over the Amazon, where they are highly prized by farmers. All the patches fall within 500 square kilometers in the central Amazon. Glaser says the widespread presence of pottery (教教) confirms the soil’s human origins. The findings add weight to the theory that large areas of the Amazon have recovered so well from past periods of agricultural use that the regrowth has been mistaken by generations of biologists for “virgin” forest. During the past decade, researchers have discovered hundreds of large earth works deep in the jungle. They are up to 20 meters high and cover up to a square kilometer. Glaser claims that these earth works, built between AD 400 and 1400, were at the heart of urban civilizations. Now it seems the richness of the Terra Preta soils may explain how such civilizations managed to feed themselves. 11. We learn from the passage that the traditional view of slash-and-burn farming is that ________. A) it does no harm to the topsoil of the rainforest B) it destroys rainforest soils C) it helps improve rainforest soils D) it diminishes the organic matter in rainforest soils 12. Most rainforest soils are thin and poor because ________. A) the composition of the topsoil is rather unstable B) black carbon is washed away by heavy rains C) organic matter is quickly lost due to heat and rain D) long-term farming has exhausted the ingredients essential to plant growth 13. Glaser made his discovery by ________. A) studying patches of fertile soils in the central Amazon 78 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 B) examining pottery left over by ancient civilizations C) test-burning patches of trees in the central Amazon D) radiocarbon-dating ingredients contained in forest soils 14. What does Glaser say about the regrowth of rainforests? A) They take centuries to regrow after being burnt. B) They cannot recover unless the vegetation is burnt completely. C) Their regrowth will be hampered by human habitation. D) They can recover easily after slash-and-burn farming. 15. From the passage it can be inferred that ________. A) human activities will do grave damage to rainforests B) Amazon rainforest soils used to be the richest in the world C) farming is responsible for the destruction of the Amazon rainforests D) there once existed an urban civilization in the Amazon rainforests Passage Two Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage. As a wise man once said, we are all ultimately alone. But an increasing number of Europeans are choosing to be so at an ever earlier age. This isn’t the stuff of gloomy philosophical contemplations, but a fact of Europe’s new economic landscape, embraced by sociologists, realestate developers and ad executives alike. The shift away from family life to solo lifestyle, observes a French sociologist, is part of the “irresistible momentum of individualism” over the last century. The communications revolution, the shift from a business culture of stability to one of mobility and the mass entry of women into the workforce have greatly wreaked havoc on ( 教 教 ) Europeans’ private lives. Europe’s new economic climate has largely fostered the trend toward independence. The current generation of home-aloners came of age during Europe’s shift from social democracy to the sharper, more individualistic climate of American style capitalism. Raised in an era of privatization and increased consumer choice, today’s tech-savvy ( 教教教教 ) workers have embraced a free market in love as well as economics. Modern Europeans are rich enough to afford to live alone, and temperamentally independent enough to want to do so. Once upon a time, people who lived alone tended to be those on either side of marriagetwenty something professionals or widowed senior citizens. While pensioners, particularly elderly women, make up a large proportion of those living alone, the newest crop of singles are high earners in their 30s and 40s who increasingly view living alone as a lifestyle choice. Living alone was conceived to be negative-dark and cold, while being together suggested warmth and light. But then came along the idea of singles. They were young, beautiful, strong! Now, young people want to live alone. The booming economy means people are working harder than ever. And that doesn’t leave much room for relationships. Pimpi Arroyo, a 35-year-old composer who lives alone in a house in 79 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Paris, says he hasn’t got time to get lonely because he has too much work. “I have deadlines which would make life with someone else fairly difficult.” Only an Ideal Woman would make him change his lifestyle, he says. Kaufmann, author of a recent book called “The Single Woman and Prince Charming,” thinks this fierce new individualism means that people expect more and more of mates, so relationships don’t last long-if they start at all. Eppendorf, a blond Berliner with a deep tan, teaches grade school in the mornings. In the afternoon she sunbathes or sleeps, resting up for going dancing. Just shy of 50, she says she’d never have wanted to do what her mother didgive up a career to raise a family. Instead, “I’ve always done what I wanted to do: live a selfdetermined life.” 16. More and more young Europeans remain single because ________. A) they are driven by an overwhelming sense of individualism B) they have entered the workforce at a much earlier age C) they have embraced a business culture of stability D) they are pessimistic about their economic future 17. What is said about European society in the passage? A) It has fostered the trend towards small families. B) It is getting closer to American-style capitalism. C) It has limited consumer choice despite a free market. D) It is being threatened by irresistible privatization. 18. According to Paragraph 3, the newest group of singles are ________. A) warm and lighthearted B) on either side of marriage C) negative and gloomy D) healthy and wealthy 19. The author quotes Eppendorf to show that ________. A) some modern women prefer a life of individual freedom B) the family is no longer the basic unit of society in present-day Europe C) some professional people have too much work to do to feel lonely D) most Europeans conceive living a single life as unacceptable 20. What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage? A) To review the impact of women becoming high earners. B) To contemplate the philosophy underlying individualism. C) To examine the trend of young people living alone. D) To stress the rebuilding of personal relationships. 80 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Passage Three Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. Supporters of the biotech industry have accused an American scientist of misconduct after she testified to the New Zealand government that a genetically modified (GM) bacterium could cause serious damage if released. The New Zealand Life Sciences Network, an association of pro-GM scientists and organisations, says the view expressed by Elaine Ingham, a soil biologist at Oregon State University in Corvallis, was exaggerated and irresponsible. It has asked her university to discipline her. But Ingham stands by her comments and says the complaints are an attempt to silence her. “They’re trying to cause trouble with my university and get me fired,” Ingham told New Scientist. The controversy began on 1 February, when Ingham testified before New Zealand’s Royal Commission on Genetic Modification, which will determine how to regulate GM organisms. Ingham claimed that a GM version of a common soil bacterium could spread and destroy plants if released into the wild. Other researchers had previously modified the bacterium to produce alcohol from organic waste. But Ingham says that when she put it in soil with wheat plants, all of the plants died within a week. “We would lose terrestrial ( 教教教 ) plants...this is an organism that is potentially deadly to the continued survival of human beings,” she told the commission. She added that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) canceled its approval for field tests using the organism once she had told them about her research in 1999. But last week the New Zealand Life Sciences Network accused Ingham of “presenting inaccurate, careless and exaggerated information” and “generating speculative doomsday scenarios ( 教教教教教教教 ) that are not scientifically supportable”. They say that her study doesn’t even show that the bacteria would survive in the wild, much less kill massive numbers of plants. What’s more, the network says that contrary to Ingham’s claims, the EPA was never asked to consider the organism for field trials. The EPA has not commented on the dispute. But an e-mail to the network from Janet Anderson, director of the EPA’s bio-pesticides ( 教教教教教 ) division, says “there is no record of a review and/or clearance to field test” the organism. Ingham says EPA officials had told her that the organism was approved for field tests, but says she has few details. It’s also not clear whether the organism, first engineered by a German institute for biotechnology, is still in use. Whether Ingham is right or wrong, her supporters say opponents are trying unfairly to silence her. “I think her concerns should be taken seriously. She shouldn’t be harassed in this way,” says Ann Clarke, a plant biologist at the University of Guelph in Canada who also testified before the commission. “It’s an attempt to silence the opposition.” 81 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 21. The passage centers on the controversy ________. A) between American and New Zealand biologists over genetic modification B) as to whether the study of genetic modification should be continued C) over the possible adverse effect of a GM bacterium on plants D) about whether Elaine Ingham should be fired by her university 22. Ingham insists that her testimony is based on ________. A) evidence provided by the EPA of the United States B) the results of an experiment she conducted herself C) evidence from her collaborative research with German biologists D) the results of extensive field tests in Corvallis, Oregon 23. According to Janet Anderson, the EPA ________. A) has cancelled its approval for field tests of the GM organism B) hasn’t reviewed the findings of Ingham’s research C) has approved field tests using the GM organism D) hasn’t given permission to field test the GM organism 24. According to Ann Clarke, the New Zealand Life Sciences Network ________. A) should gather evidence to discredit Ingham’s claims B) should require that the research by their biologists be regulated C) shouldn’t demand that Ingham be disciplined for voicing her views D) shouldn’t appease the opposition in such a quiet way 25. Which of the following statements about Ingham is TRUE? A) Her testimony hasn’t been supported by the EPA. B) Her credibility as a scientist hasn’t been undermined. C) She is firmly supported by her university. D) She has made great contributions to the study of GM bacteria. Passage Four Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. Every fall, like clockwork, Linda Krentz of Beaverton, Oregon, felt her brain go on strike. “I just couldn’t get going in the morning,” she says. “I’d get depressed and gain 10 pounds every winter and lose them again in the spring.” Then she read about seasonal affective disorder, a form of depression that occurs in fall and winter, and she saw the light-literally. Every morning now she turns on a specially constructed light box for half an hour and sits in front of it to trick her brain into thinking it’s still enjoying those long summer days. It seems to work. Krentz is not alone. Scientists estimate that 10 million Americans suffer from seasonal depression and 25 million more develop milder versions. But there’s never been definitive proof 82 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 that treatment with very bright lights makes a difference. After all, it’s hard to do a double-blind test when the subjects can see for themselves whether or not the light is on. That’s why nobody has ever separated the real effects of light therapy from placebo (教教教) effects. Until now. In three separate studies published last month, researchers report not only that light therapy works better than a placebo but that treatment is usually more effective in the early morning than in the evening. In two of the groups, the placebo problem was resolved by telling patients they were comparing light boxes to a new anti-depressant device that emits negatively charged ions (教教). The third used the timing of light therapy as the control. Why does light therapy work? No one really knows. “Our research suggests it has something to do with shifting the body’s internal clock,” says psychiatrist Dr. Lewey. The body is programmed to start the day with sunrise, he explains, and this gets later as the days get shorter. But why such subtle shifts make some people depressed and not others is a mystery. That hasn’t stopped thousands of winter depressives from trying to heal themselves. Light boxes for that purpose are available without a doctor’s prescription. That bothers psychologist Michael Terman of Columbia University. He is worried that the boxes may be tried by patients who suffer from mental illness that can’t be treated with light. Terman has developed a questionnaire to help determine whether expert care is needed. In any event, you should choose a reputable manufacturer. Whatever product you use should emit only visible light, because ultraviolet light damages the eyes. If you are photosensitive ( 教教教教教), you may develop a rash. Otherwise, the main drawback is having to sit in front of the light for 30 to 60 minutes in the morning. That’s an inconvenience many winter depressives can live with. 26. What is the probable cause of Krentz’s problem? A) An unexpected gain in body weight. B) Unexplained impairment of her nervous system. C) Weakening of her eyesight with the setting in of winter. D) Poor adjustment of her body clock to seasonal changes. 27. By saying that Linda Krentz saw the light” (Line 4, Para. 1), the author means that she ________. A) learned how to lose weight B) realized what her problem was C) came to see the importance of light D) became light-hearted and cheerful 28. What is the CURRENT view concerning the treatment of seasonal depression with bright lights? A) Its effect remains to be seen. B) It serves as a kind of placebo. C) It proves to be an effective therapy. D) It hardly produces any effects. 83 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 29. What is psychologist Michael Terman’s major concern? A) Winter depressives will be addicted to using light boxes. B) No mental patients would bother to consult psychiatrists. C) Inferior light boxes will emit harmful ultraviolet lights. D) Light therapy could be misused by certain mental patients. 30. Which of the following statements is TRUE? A) Winter depressives prefer light therapy in spite of its inconvenience. B) Light therapy increases the patient’s photosensitivity. C) Eye damage is a side effect of light therapy. D) Light boxes can be programmed to correspond to shifts in the body clock. Unit 14 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. Too many vulnerable child-free adults are being ruthlessly ( 教教教) manipulated into parent-hood by their parents, who think that happiness among older people depends on having a grand-child to spoil. We need an organization to help beat down the persistent campaigns of grandchildless parents. It’s time to establish Planned Grandparenthood, which would have many global and local benefits. Part of its mission would be to promote the risks and realities associated with being a grandparent. The staff would include depressed grandparents who would explain how grandkids break lamps, bite, scream and kick. Others would detail how an hour of baby-sitting often turns into a crying marathon. More grandparents would testify that they had to pay for their grandchild’s expensive college education. Planned grandparenthood’s carefully written literature would detail all the joys of life grand- 84 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 child-free a calm living room, extra money for luxuries during the golden years, etc. Potential grandparents would be reminded that, without grandchildren around, it’s possible to have a conversation with your kids, who—incidentally—would have more time for their own parents. Meanwhile, most children are vulnerable to the enormous influence exerted by grandchildless parents aiming to persuade their kids to produce children. They will take a call from a persistent parent, even if they’re loaded with works. In addition, some parents make handsome money offers payable upon the grandchild’s birth. Sometimes these gifts not only cover expenses associated with the infant’s birth, but extras, too, like a vacation. In any case, cash gifts can weaken the resolve of even the noblest person. At Planned Grandparenthood, children targeted by their parents to reproduce could obtain non-biased information about the insanity of having their own kids. The catastrophic psychological and economic costs of childbearing would be emphasized. The symptoms of morning sickness would be listed and horrors of childbirth pictured. A monthly newsletter would contain stories about overwhelmed parents and offer guidance on how childless adults can respond to the different lobbying tactics that would-be grandparents employ. When I think about all the problems of our overpopulated world and look at our boy grabbing at the lamp by the sofa, I wish I could have turned to Planned Grandparenthood when my parents were putting the grandchild squeeze on me. If I could have, I might not be in this parenthood predicament ( 教教). But here’s the crazy irony, I don’t want my child-free life back. Dylan’s too much fun. 21. What’s the purpose of the proposed organization Planned Grandparenthood? A) To encourage childless couples to have children. B) To provide facilities and services for grandchildless parents. C) To offer counseling to people on how to raise grandchildren. D) To discourage people from insisting on having grandchildren. 22. Planned Grandparenthood would include depressed grandparents on its staff in order to ________. A) show them the joys of life grandparents may have in raising grandchildren B) draw attention to the troubles and difficulties grandchildren may cause C) share their experience in raising grandchildren in a more scientific way D) help raise funds to cover the high expense of education for grandchildren 23. According to the passage, some couples may eventually choose to have children because ________. A) they find it hard to resist the carrot-and-stick approach of their parents B) they have learn from other parents about the joys of having children C) they feel more and more lonely ad they grow older D) they have found it irrational to remain childless 24. By saying “... my parents were putting the grandchild squeeze on me” (Line 2-3, Para. 6), the author means that ________. 85 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 A) her parents kept pressuring her to have a child B) her parents liked to have a grandchild in their arms C) her parents asked her to save for the expenses of raising a child D) her parents kept blaming her for her child’s bad behavior 25. What does the author really of the idea of having children? A) It does more harm than good. B) It contributes to overpopulation. C) It is troublesome but rewarding. D) It is a psychological catastrophe. Passage Two Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. Ask most people how they define the American Dream and chances are they’ll say, “Success.” The dream of individual opportunity has been home in American since Europeans discovered a “new world” in the Western Hemisphere. Early immigrants like Hector St. Jean de Crevecoeur praised highly the freedom and opportunity to be found in this new land. His glowing descriptions of a classless society where anyone could attain success through honesty and hard work fired the imaginations of many European readers: in Letters from an American Farmer (1782) he wrote. “We are all excited at the spirit of an industry which is unfettered ( 教教教教教 ) and unrestrained, because each person works for himself ... We have no princes, for whom we toil ( 教教教 教 )教starve, and bleed: we are the most perfect society now existing in the world.” The promise of a land where “the rewards of a man’s industry follow with equal steps the progress of his labor” drew poor immigrants from Europe and fueled national expansion into the western territories. Our national mythology ( 教 教 ) is full of illustration the American success story. There’s Benjamin Franklin, the very model of the self-educated, self-made man, who rose from modest origins to become a well-known scientist, philosopher, and statesman. In the nineteenth century, Horatio Alger, a writer of fiction for young boys, became American’s best-selling author with rags-to-riches tales. The notion of success haunts us: we spend million every year reading about the rich and famous, learning how to “make a fortune in real estate with no money down,” and “dressing for success.” The myth of success has even invaded our personal relationships: today it’s as important to be “successful” in marriage or parenthoods as it is to come out on top in business. But dreams easily turn into nightmares. Every American who hopes to “make it” also knows the fear of failure, because the myth of success inevitably implies comparison between the haves and the have-nots, the stars and the anonymous crowd. Under pressure of the myth, we become indulged in status symbols: we try to live in the “right” neighborhoods, wear the “right” clothes, eat the “right” foods. These symbols of distinction assure us and others that we believe strongly in the fundamental equality of all, yet strive as hard as we can to separate ourselves from our fellow citizens. 86 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 26. What is the essence of the American Dream according to Crevecoeur? A) People are free to develop their power of imagination. B) People who are honest and work hard can succeed. C) People are free from exploitation and oppression. D) People can fully enjoy individual freedom. 27. By saying “the rewards of a man’s industry follow with equal steps the progress of his labor” (Line 10, Para. 1), the author means ________. A) the more diligent one is, the bigger his returns B) laborious work ensures the growth of an industry C) a man’s business should be developed step by step D) a company’s success depends on its employees’ hard work 28. The characters described in Horatio Alger’s novels are people who ________. A) succeed in real estate investment B) earned enormous fortunes by chances C) became wealthy after starting life very poor D) became famous despite their modest origins 29. It can be inferred from the last sentence of the second paragraph that ________. A) business success often contributes to a successful marriage B) Americans wish to succeed in every aspect of life C) good personal relationships lead to business success D) successful business people provide good care for their children 30. What is the paradox of American culture according to the author? A) The American road to success is full of nightmares. B) Status symbols are not a real indicator of a person’s wealth. C) The American Dream is nothing but an empty dream. D) What Americans strive after often contradicts their beliefs. Passage Three Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage. Public distrust of scientists stems in part from the blurring of boundaries between science and technology, between discovery and manufacture. Most government, perhaps all governments, justify public expenditure on scientific research in terms of the economic benefits the scientific enterprise ha brought in the past and will bring in the future. Politicians remind their voters of the splendid machines ‘our scientists’ have invented, the new drugs to relieve old ailments ( 教教 ), and the new surgical equipment and techniques by which previously intractable ( 教教教教 ) conditions may 87 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 now be treated and lives saved. At the same time, the politicians demand of scientists that they tailor their research to ‘economics needs’, that they award a higher priority to research proposals that are ‘near the market’ and can be translated into the greatest return on investment in the shortest time. Dependent, as they are, on politicians for much of their funding, scientists have little choice but to comply. Like the rest of us, they are members of a society that rates the creation of wealth as the greatest possible good. Many have reservations, but keep them to themselves in what they perceive as a climate hostile to the pursuit of understanding for its own sake and the idea of an inquiring, creative spirit. In such circumstances no one should be too hard on people who are suspicious of conflicts of interest. When we learn that the distinguished professor assuring us of the safety of a particular product holds a consultancy with the company making it, we cannot be blamed for wondering whether his fee might conceivably cloud his professional judgment. Even if the professor holds no consultancy with any firm, some people many still distrust him because of his association with those who do, or at least wonder about the source of some his research funding. This attitude can have damaging effects. It questions the integrity of individuals working in a profession that prizes intellectual honesty as the supreme virtue, and plays into the hands of those who would like to discredit scientists by representing then a venal ( 教教教教教 ). This makes it easier to dismiss all scientific pronouncements, but especially those made by the scientists who present themselves as ‘experts’. The scientist most likely to understand the safety of a nuclear reactor, for example, is a nuclear engineer declares that a reactor is unsafe, we believe him, because clearly it is not to his advantage to lie about it. If he tells us it is safe, on the other hand, we distrust him, because he may well be protecting the employer who pays his salary. 31. What is the chief concern of most governments when it comes to scientific research? A) Support from the votes. B) The reduction of public expenditure. C) Quick economics returns. D) The budget for a research project. 32. Scientist have to adapt their research to ‘economic needs’ in order to ________. A) impress the public with their achievements B) pursue knowledge for knowledge’s sake C) obtain funding from the government D) translate knowledge into wealth 33. Why won’t scientists complain about the government’s policy concerning scientific research? A) They think they work in an environment hostile to the free pursuit of knowledge. B) They are accustomed to keeping their opinions to themselves. C) They know it takes patience to win support from the public. D) They think compliance with government policy is in the interests of the public. 34. According to the author, people are suspicious of the professional judgment of scientists 88 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 because ________. A) their pronouncements often turn out to be wrong B) sometimes they hide the source of their research funding C) some of them do not give priority to intellectual honesty D) they could be influenced by their association with the project concerned 35. Why does the author say that public distrust of scientists can have damaging effects? A) It makes things difficult for scientists seeking research funds. B) People would not believe scientists even when they tell the truth. C) It may dampen the enthusiasm of scientists for independent research. D) Scientists themselves may doubt the value of their research findings. Passage Four Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage. In many ways, today’s business environment has changed qualitatively since the late 1980s. The end of the Cold War radically altered the very nature of the world’s politics and economics. In just a few short years, globalization has started a variety of trends with profound consequences: the opening of markets, true global competition, widespread deregulation ( 教教教教教…教教教 ) of industry, and an abundance of accessible capital. We have experienced both the benefits and risks of a truly global economy, with both Wall Street and Main Street ( 教 教 教 教 ) feeling the pains of economic disorder half a world away. At the same time, we have fully entered the Information Age, Starting breakthroughs in information technology have irreversibly altered the ability to conduct business unconstrained by the traditional limitations of time or space. Today, it’s almost impossible to imagine a world without intranets, e-mail, and portable computers. With stunning speed, the Internet is profoundly changing the way we work, shop, do business, and communicate. As a consequence, we have truly entered the Post-Industrial economy. We are rapidly shifting from an economy based on manufacturing and commodities to one that places the greatest value on information, services, support, and distribution. That shift, in turn, place an unprecedented premium on “knowledge workers,” a new class of wealthy, educated, and mobile people who view themselves as free agents in a seller’s market. Beyond the realm of information technology, the accelerated pace of technological change in virtually every industry has created entirely new business, wiped out others, and produced a Pervasive ( 教 教 教 ) demand for continuous innovation. New product, process, and distribution technologies provide powerful levers for creating competitive value. More companies are learning the importance of destructive technologies—innovations that hold the potential to make a product line, or even an entire business segment, virtually outdated. Another major trend has been the fragmentation of consumer and business markets. There’s a 89 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 growing appreciation that superficially similar groups of customers may have very different preferences in terms of what they want to buy and how they want to buy it. Now, new technology makes it easier, faster, and cheaper to identify and serve targeted micro-markets in ways that were physically impossible or prohibitively expensive in the past. Moreover, the trend feeds on itself, a business’s ability to serve sub-markets fuels customers’ appetites for more and more specialized offerings. 36. According to the first paragraph, the chances in the business environment in the past decades can be attributed to ________. A) technological advances B) worldwide economic disorder C) the fierce competition in industry D) the globalization of economy 37. what idea does the author want to convey in the second paragraph? A) The rapid development of information technology has taken businessmen by surprise. B) Information technology has removed the restrictions of time and space in business transactions. C) The Internet, intranets, e-mail, and portable computers have penetrated every corner of the world. D) The way we do business today has brought about startling breakthroughs in information technology. 38. If a business wants to thrive in the Post-Industrial economy, ________. A) it has to invest more capital in the training of free agents to operate in a seller’s market B) it should try its best to satisfy the increasing demands of mobile knowledgeable people C) it should not overlook the importance of information, services, support, and distribution D) it has to provide each of its employees with the latest information about the changing market 39. In the author’s view, destructive technologies are innovations which ________. A) can eliminate an entire business segment B) demand a radical change in providing services C) may destroy the potential of a company to make any profit D) call for continuous improvement in ways of doing business 40. With the fragmentation of consumer and business markets ________. A) an increasing number of companies have disintegrated B) manufacturers must focus on one special product to remain competitive in the market C) it is physically impossible and prohibitively expensive to do business in the old way D) businesses have to meet individual customers’ specific needs in order to succeed 90 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Unit 15 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage. As a wise man once said, we are all ultimately alone. But an increasing number of Europeans are choosing to be so at an ever earlier age. This isn’t the stuff of gloomy philosophical contemplations, but a fact of Europe’s new economic landscape, embraced by sociologists, realestate developers and ad executives alike. The shift away from family life to solo lifestyle, observes a French sociologist, is part of the “irresistible momentum of individualism” over the last century. The communications revolution, the shift from a business culture of stability to one of mobility and the mass entry of women into the workforce have greatly wreaked havoc on ( 教 教 ) Europeans’ private lives. Europe’s new economic climate has largely fostered the trend toward independence. The current generation of home-aloners came of age during Europe’s shift from social democracy to the sharper, more individualistic climate of American style capitalism. Raised in an era of privatization and increased consumer choice, today’s tech-savvy ( 教教教教教 ) workers have embraced a free market in love as well as economics. Modern Europeans are rich enough to afford to live alone, and temperamentally independent enough to want to do so. Once upon a time, people who lived alone tended to be those on either side of marriagetwenty something professionals or widowed senior citizens. While pensioners, particularly elderly women, make up a large proportion of those living alone, the newest crop of singles are high earners in their 30s and 40s who increasingly view living alone as a lifestyle choice. Living alone was conceived to be negative-dark and cold, while being together suggested warmth and light. But then came along the idea of singles. They were young, beautiful, strong! Now, young people want to live alone. The booming economy means people are working harder than ever. And that doesn’t leave much room for relationships. Pimpi Arroyo, a 35-year-old composer who lives alone in a house in Paris, says he hasn’t got time to get lonely because he has too much work. “I have deadlines which would make life with someone else fairly difficult.” Only an Ideal Woman would make him 91 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 change his lifestyle, he says. Kaufmann, author of a recent book called “The Single Woman and Prince Charming,” thinks this fierce new individualism means that people expect more and more of mates, so relationships don’t last long-if they start at all. Eppendorf, a blond Berliner with a deep tan, teaches grade school in the mornings. In the afternoon she sunbathes or sleeps, resting up for going dancing. Just shy of 50, she says she’d never have wanted to do what her mother didgive up a career to raise a family. Instead, “I’ve always done what I wanted to do: live a selfdetermined life.” 52. More and more young Europeans remain single because ________. A) they are driven by an overwhelming sense of individualism B) they have entered the workforce at a much earlier age C) they have embraced a business culture of stability D) they are pessimistic about their economic future 53. What is said about European society in the passage? A) It has fostered the trend towards small families. B) It is getting closer to American-style capitalism. C) It has limited consumer choice despite a free market. D) It is being threatened by irresistible privatization. 54. According to Paragraph 3, the newest group of singles are ________. A) warm and lighthearted B) on either side of marriage C) negative and gloomy D) healthy and wealthy 55. The author quotes Eppendorf to show that ________. A) some modern women prefer a life of individual freedom B) the family is no longer the basic unit of society in present-day Europe C) some professional people have too much work to do to feel lonely D) most Europeans conceive living a single life as unacceptable 56. What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage? A) To review the impact of women becoming high earners. B) To contemplate the philosophy underlying individualism. C) To examine the trend of young people living alone. D) To stress the rebuilding of personal relationships. Passage Two Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage. Supporters of the biotech industry have accused an American scientist of misconduct after she testified to the New Zealand government that a genetically modified (GM) bacterium could 92 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 cause serious damage if released. The New Zealand Life Sciences Network, an association of pro-GM scientists and organisations, says the view expressed by Elaine Ingham, a soil biologist at Oregon State University in Corvallis, was exaggerated and irresponsible. It has asked her university to discipline her. But Ingham stands by her comments and says the complaints are an attempt to silence her. “They’re trying to cause trouble with my university and get me fired,” Ingham told New Scientist. The controversy began on 1 February, when Ingham testified before New Zealand’s Royal Commission on Genetic Modification, which will determine how to regulate GM organisms. Ingham claimed that a GM version of a common soil bacterium could spread and destroy plants if released into the wild. Other researchers had previously modified the bacterium to produce alcohol from organic waste. But Ingham says that when she put it in soil with wheat plants, all of the plants died within a week. “We would lose terrestrial ( 教教教 ) plants...this is an organism that is potentially deadly to the continued survival of human beings,” she told the commission. She added that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) canceled its approval for field tests using the organism once she had told them about her research in 1999. But last week the New Zealand Life Sciences Network accused Ingham of “presenting inaccurate, careless and exaggerated information” and “generating speculative doomsday scenarios ( 教教教教教教教 ) that are not scientifically supportable”. They say that her study doesn’t even show that the bacteria would survive in the wild, much less kill massive numbers of plants. What’s more, the network says that contrary to Ingham’s claims, the EPA was never asked to consider the organism for field trials. The EPA has not commented on the dispute. But an e-mail to the network from Janet Anderson, director of the EPA’s bio-pesticides ( 教教教教教 ) division, says “there is no record of a review and/or clearance to field test” the organism. Ingham says EPA officials had told her that the organism was approved for field tests, but says she has few details. It’s also not clear whether the organism, first engineered by a German institute for biotechnology, is still in use. Whether Ingham is right or wrong, her supporters say opponents are trying unfairly to silence her. “I think her concerns should be taken seriously. She shouldn’t be harassed in this way,” says Ann Clarke, a plant biologist at the University of Guelph in Canada who also testified before the commission. “It’s an attempt to silence the opposition.” 57. The passage centers on the controversy ________. A) between American and New Zealand biologists over genetic modification B) as to whether the study of genetic modification should be continued 93 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 C) over the possible adverse effect of a GM bacterium on plants D) about whether Elaine Ingham should be fired by her university 58. Ingham insists that her testimony is based on ________. A) evidence provided by the EPA of the United States B) the results of an experiment she conducted herself C) evidence from her collaborative research with German biologists D) the results of extensive field tests in Corvallis, Oregon 59. According to Janet Anderson, the EPA ________. A) has cancelled its approval for field tests of the GM organism B) hasn’t reviewed the findings of Ingham’s research C) has approved field tests using the GM organism D) hasn’t given permission to field test the GM organism 60. According to Ann Clarke, the New Zealand Life Sciences Network ________. A) should gather evidence to discredit Ingham’s claims B) should require that the research by their biologists be regulated C) shouldn’t demand that Ingham be disciplined for voicing her views D) shouldn’t appease the opposition in such a quiet way 61. Which of the following statements about Ingham is TRUE? A) Her testimony hasn’t been supported by the EPA. B) Her credibility as a scientist hasn’t been undermined. C) She is firmly supported by her university. D) She has made great contributions to the study of GM bacteria. Unit 16 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage. In a purely biological sense, fear begins with the body’s system for reacting to things that can harm us—the so-called fight-or-flight response. “An animal that can’t detect danger can’t stay alive,” says Joseph LeDoux. Like animals, humans evolved with an elaborate mechanism for processing information about potential threats. At its core is a cluster of neurons ( 教教教 ) deep in the 94 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 brain known as the amygdale (教教教). LeDoux studies the way animals and humans respond to threats to understand how we form memories of significant events in our lives. The amygdale receives input from many parts of the brain, including regions responsible for retrieving memories. Using this information, the amygdale appraises a situation—I think this charging dog wants to bite me—and triggers a response by radiating nerve signals throughout the body. These signals produce the familiar signs of distress: trembling, perspiration and fast-moving feet, just to name three. This fear mechanism is critical to the survival of all animals, but no one can say for sure whether beasts other than humans know they’re afraid. That is, as LeDoux says, “if you put that system into a brain that has consciousness, then you get the feeling of fear.” Humans, says Edward M. Hallowell, have the ability to call up images of bad things that happened in the past and to anticipate future events. Combine these higher thought processes with our hardwired danger-detection systems, and you get a near-universal human phenomenon: worry. That’s not necessarily a bad thing, says Hallowell. “When used properly, worry is an incredible device,” he says. After all, a little healthy worrying is okay if it leads to constructive action—like having a doctor look at that weird spot on your back. Hallowell insists, though, that there’s a right way to worry. “Never do it alone, get the facts and then make a plan.” He says. Most of us have survived a recession, so we’re familiar with the belt-tightening strategies needed to survive a slump. Unfortunately, few of us have much experience dealing with the threat of terrorism, so it’s been difficult to get fact about how we should respond. That’s why Hallowell believes it was okay for people to indulge some extreme worries last fall by asking doctors for Cipro ( 教 教 教 教 教 教 教 ) and buying gas masks. 52. The “so-called fight-or-flight response” (Line 2, Para. 1) refers to “________”. A) the biological process in which human beings’ sense of self-defense evolves B) the instinctive fear human beings feel when faced with potential danger C) the act of evaluating a dangerous situation and making a quick decision D) the elaborate mechanism in the human brain for retrieving information 53. From the studies conducted by LeDoux we learn that ________. A) reactions of humans and animals to dangerous situations are often unpredictable B) memories of significant events enable people to control fear and distress C) people’s unpleasant memories are derived from their feeling of fear D) the amygdale plays a vital part in human and animal responses to potential danger 54. From the passage we know that ________. A) a little worry will do us good if handled properly B) a little worry will enable us to survive a recession C) fear strengthens the human desire to survive danger D) fear helps people to anticipate certain future events 95 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 55. Which of the following is the best way to deal with your worries according to Hallowell? A) Ask for help from the people around you. B) Use the belt-tightening strategies for survival. C) Seek professional advice and take action. D) Understand the situation and be fully prepared. 56. In Hallowell’s view, people’s reaction to the terrorist threat last fall was ________. A) ridiculous B) understandable C) over-cautious D) sensible Passage Two Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage. Amitai Etzioni is not surprised by the latest headings about scheming corporate crooks ( 教教 ). As a visiting professor at the Harvard Business School in 1989, he ended his work there disgusted with his students’ overwhelming lost for money. “They’re taught that profit is all that matters,” he says. “Many schools don’t even offer ethics (教教教) courses at all.” Etzioni expressed his frustration about the interests of his graduate students. “By and large, I clearly had not found a way to help classes full of MBAs see that there is more to life than money, power, fame and self-interest.” He wrote at the time. Today he still takes the blame for not educating these “business-leaders-to-be.” “I really like I failed them,” he says. “If I was a better teacher maybe I could have reached them.” Etzioni was a respected ethics expert when he arrived at Harvard. He hoped his work at the university would give him insight into how questions of morality could be applied to places where self-interest flourished. What he found wasn’t encouraging. Those would be executives had, says Etzioni, little interest in concepts of ethics and morality in the boardroom—and their professor was met with blank stares when he urged his students to see business in new and different ways. Etzioni sees the experience at Harvard as an eye-opening one and says there’s much about business schools that he’d like to change. “A lot of the faculty teaching business are bad news themselves,” Etzioni says. From offering classes that teach students how to legally manipulate contracts, to reinforcing the notion of profit over community interests, Etzioni has seen a lot that’s left him shaking his head. And because of what he’s seen taught in business schools, he’s not surprised by the latest rash of corporate scandals. “In many ways things have got a lot worse at business schools, I suspect,” says Etzioni. Etzioni is still teaching the sociology of right and wrong and still calling for ethical business leadership. “People with poor motives will always exist.” He says. “Sometimes environments constrain those people and sometimes environments give those people opportunity.” Etzioni says the booming economy of the last decade enabled those individuals with poor motives to get rich 96 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 before getting in trouble. His hope now: that the cries for reform will provide more fertile soil for his long-standing messages about business ethics. 57. What impressed Amitai Etzioni most about Harvard MBA students? A) Their keen interest in business courses. B) Their intense desire for money. C) Their tactics for making profits. D) Their potential to become business leaders. 58. Why did Amitai Etzioni say “I really feel like I failed them” (Line 4, Para. 2)? A) He was unable to alert his students to corporate malpractice. B) He didn’t teach his students to see business in new and different ways. C) He could not get his students to understand the importance of ethics in business. D) He didn’t offer courses that would meet the expectations of the business-leaders-to-be. 59. Most would-be executives at the Harvard Business School believed that ________. A) questions of morality were of utmost importance in business affairs B) self-interest should not be the top priority in business dealings C) new and different principles should be taught at business schools D) there was no place for ethics and morality in business dealings 60. In Etzioni’s view, the latest rash of corporate scandals could be attributed to ________. A) the tendency in business schools to stress self-interest over business ethics B) the executives’ lack of knowledge in legally manipulating contracts C) the increasingly fierce competition in the modern business world D) the moral corruption of business school graduates 61. We learn from the last paragraph that ________. A) the calls for reform will help promote business ethics B) businessmen with poor motives will gain the upper hand C) business ethics courses should be taught in all business schools D) reform in business management contributes to economic growth Unit 17 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked 97 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage. The use of deferential (教教教) language is symbolic of the Confucian ideal of the woman, which dominates conservative gender norms in Japan. This ideal presents a woman who withdraws quietly to the background, subordinating her life and needs to those of her family and its male head. She is a dutiful daughter, wife, and mother, master of the domestic arts. The typical refined Japanese woman excels in modesty and delicacy; she “treads softly ( 教教教教 )in the world,” elevating feminine beauty and grace to an art form. Nowadays, it is commonly observed that young women are not conforming to the feminine linguistic ( 教 教 教 ) ideal. They are using fewer of the very deferential “women’s” forms, and even using the few strong forms that are know as “men’s.” This, of course, attracts considerable attention and has led to an outcry in the Japanese media against the defeminization of women’s language. Indeed, we didn’t hear about “men’s language” until people began to respond to girls’ appropriation of forms normally reserved for boys and men. There is considerable sentiment about the “corruption” of women’s language—which of course is viewed as part of the loss of feminine ideals and morality—and this sentiment is crystallized by nationwide opinion polls that are regularly carried out by the media. Yoshiko Matsumoto has argued that young women probably never used as many of the highly deferential forms as older women. This highly polite style is no doubt something that young women have been expected to “grow into”—after all, it is assign not simply of femininity, but of maturity and refinement, and its use could be taken to indicate a change in the nature of one’s social relations as well. One might well imagine little girls using exceedingly polite forms when playing house or imitating older women—in a fashion analogous to little girls’ use of a highpitched voice to do “teacher talk” or “mother talk” in role play. The fact that young Japanese women are using less deferential language is a sure sign of change—of social change and of linguistic change. But it is most certainly not a sign of the “masculization” of girls. In some instances, it may be a sign that girls are making the same claim to authority as boys and men, but that is very different from saying that they are trying to be “masculine.” Katsue Reynolds has argued that girls nowadays are using more assertive language strategies in order to be able to compete with boys in schools and out. Social change also brings not simply different positions for women and girls, but different relations to life stages, and adolescent girls are participating in new subcultural forms. Thus what may, to an older speaker, seem like “masculine” speech may seem to an adolescent like “liberated” or “hip” speech. 98 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 52. The first paragraph describes in detail ________. A) the Confucian influence on gender norms in Japan B) the stereotyped role of women in Japanese families C) the standards set for contemporary Japanese women D) the norms for traditional Japanese women to follow 53. What change has been observed in today’s young Japanese women? A) They use fewer of the deferential linguistic forms. B) They pay less attention to their linguistic behavior. C) They employ very strong linguistic expressions. D) They confuse male and female forms of language. 54. How do some people react to women’s appropriation of men’s language forms as reported in the Japanese media? A) They call for a campaign to stop the defeminization. B) They accept it as a modern trend. C) They express strong disapproval. D) The see it as an expression of women’s sentiment. 55. According to Yoshiko Matsumoto, the linguistic behavior observed in today’s young women ________. A) may lead to changes in social relations B) is viewed as a sign of their maturity C) is a result of rapid social progress D) has been true of all past generations 56. The author believes that the use of assertive language by young Japanese women is ________. A) a sure sign of their defeminization and maturation B) one of their strategies to compete in a male-dominated society C) an inevitable trend of linguistic development in Japan today D) an indication of their defiance against social change Passage Two Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage. You hear the refrain all the time: the U.S. economy looks good statistically, but it doesn’t feel good. Why doesn’t ever-greater wealth promote ever-greater happiness? It is a question that dates at least to the appearance in 1958 of The Affluent ( 教教教 ) Society by John Kenneth Galbraith, who died recently at 97. The Affluent Society is a modern classic because it helped define a new moment in the human condition. For most of history, “hunger, sickness, and cold” threatened nearly everyone, Galbraith wrote. “Poverty was found everywhere in that world. Obviously it is not of ours.” After 99 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 World War II, the dread of another Great Depression gave way to an economic boom. In the 1930s unemployment had averaged 18.2 percent; in the 1950s it was 4.5 percent. To Galbraith, materialism had gone mad and would breed discontent. Through advertising, companies conditioned consumers to buy things they didn’t really want or need. Because so much spending was artificial, it would be unfulfilling. Meanwhile, government spending that would make everyone better off was being cut down because people instinctively—and wrongly— labeled government only as “a necessary evil.” It’s often said that only the rich are getting ahead; everyone else is standing still or falling behind. Well, there are many undeserving rich—overpaid chief executives, for instance. But over any meaningful period, most people’s incomes are increasing. From 1995 to 2004, inflationadjusted average family income rose 14.3 percent, to $43,200. people feel “squeezed” because their rising incomes often don’t satisfy their rising wants—for bigger homes, more health care, more education, faster Internet connections. The other great frustration is that it has not eliminated insecurity. People regard job stability as part of their standard of living. As corporate layoffs increased, that part has eroded. More workers fear they’ve become “the disposable American,” as Louis Uchitelle puts it in his book by the same name. Because so much previous suffering and social conflict stemmed from poverty, the arrival of widespread affluence suggested utopian ( 教 教 教 教 教 ) possibilities. Up to a point, affluence succeeds. There is much les physical misery than before. People are better off. Unfortunately, affluence also creates new complaints and contradictions. Advanced societies need economic growth to satisfy the multiplying wants of their citizens. But the quest for growth lets loose new anxieties and economic conflicts that disturb the social order. Affluence liberates the individual, promising that everyone can choose a unique way to selffulfillment. But the promise is so extravagant that it predestines many disappointments and sometimes inspires choices that have anti-social consequences, including family breakdown and obesity (教教教). Statistical indicators of happiness have not risen with incomes. Should we be surprised? Not really. We’ve simply reaffirmed an old truth: the pursuit of affluence does not always end with happiness. 57. What question does John Kenneth Galbraith raise in his book The Affluent Society? A) Why statistics don’t tell the truth about the economy. B) Why affluence doesn’t guarantee happiness. C) How happiness can be promoted today. D) What lies behind an economic boom. 58. According to Galbraith, people feel discontented because ________. A) public spending hasn’t been cut down as expected B) the government has proved to be a necessary evil 100 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 C) they are in fear of another Great Depression D) materialism has run wild in modern society 59. Why do people feel squeezed when their average income rises considerably? A) Their material pursuits have gone far ahead of their earnings. B) Their purchasing power has dropped markedly with inflation. C) The distribution of wealth is uneven between the r5ich and the poor. D) Health care and educational cost have somehow gone out of control. 60. What does Louis Uchitelle mean by “the disposable American” (Line 3, Para. 5)? A) Those who see job stability as part of their living standard. B) People full of utopian ideas resulting from affluence. C) People who have little say in American politics. D) Workers who no longer have secure jobs. 61. What has affluence brought to American society? A) Renewed economic security. B) A sense of self-fulfillment. C) New conflicts and complaints. D) Misery and anti-social behavior. Unit 18 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage. Like most people, I've long understood that I will be judged by my occupation, that my profession is a gauge people use to see how smart or talented I am. Recently. however, I was disappointed to see that I'm treated as a person. Last year I left a professional position as a small-town reporter and took a job waiting tables. As someone paid to serve food to people, I had customers say and do things to me I suspect they'd never say or do to their most casual acquaintances. One night a man talking on his cell phone waved me away, then beckoned( 教教 ) me back with his finger a minute later, complaining he was 101 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 ready to order and asking where I'd been. I had waited tables during summers in college and was treated like a peon( 教教教 ) by plenty of people. But at 19 years old, I believed I deserved inferior treatment from professional adults. Besides, people responded to me differently after I told them I was in college. Customers would joke that one day I'd be sitting at their table, waiting to be served. Once I graduated I took a job at a community newspaper. From my first day, I heard a respectful tone from every one who called me. I assumed this was the way the professional world worked—cordially. I soon found out differently. I saw several feet away from an advertising sales representative with a similar name. Our calls would often get mixed up and someone asking for Kristen would be transferred to Christie. The mistakes was immediately evident. Perhaps it was because money was involved, but people used a tone with Kristen that they never used with me. My job title made people treat me with courtesy. So it was a shock to return to the restaurant industry. It’s no secret that there’s a lot to put up with when waiting tables, and fortunately, much of it can be easily forgotten when you pocket the tips. The service industry, by definition, exists to cater to others’ needs. Still, it seemed that many of my customers didn’t get the difference between server and servant. I’m now applying to graduate school, which means someday I’ll return to a profession where people need to be nice to me in order to get what they want. I think I’ll take them to dinner first, and see how they treat someone whose only job is to serve them. 52. The author was disappointed to find that ____. A) one's position is used as a gauge to measure one's intelligence B) talented people like her should fail to get a respectable job C) one's occupation affects the way one is treated as a person D) professionals tend to look down upon manual workers 53. What does the author intend to say by the example in the second paragraph? A) some customers simply show no respect to those who serve them. B) people absorbed in a phone conversation tend to be absent-minded. C) Waitresses are often treated by customers as casual acquaintances. D) some customers like to make loud complaints for no reason at all. 54. How did the author feel when waiting tables at the age of 19? A) she felt it unfair to be treated as a mere servant by professionals. B) she felt badly hurt when her customers regarded her as a peon. C) she was embarrassed each time her customers joked with her. D) she found it natural for professionals to treat her as inferior. 55. What does the author imply by saying "... many of my customers didn't get the difference between server and servant" (Lines 3-4, Para.7)? A) those who cater to others' needs are destined to be looked down upon. 102 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 B) those working in the service industry shouldn't be treated as servants. C) those serving others have to put up with rough treatment to earn a living. D) the majority of customers tend to look on a servant as a server nowadays. 56. The author says she'll one day take her clients to dinner in order to ___. A) see what kind of person they are B) experience the feeling of being served C) show her generosity towards people inferior to her D) arouse their sympathy for people living a humble life Passage Two Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage. What's hot for 2007 among the very rich? A &7.3 million diamond ring. A trip to Tanzania to hunt wild animals. Oh, and income inequality. Sure, some leftish billionaires like George Soros have been railing against income inequality for years. But increasingly, centrist and right-wing billionaires are starting to worry about income inequality and the fate of the middle class. In December, Mortimer Zuckerman wrote a column in U.S.NEWS & World Report. which he owns. "Our nation's core bargain with the middle class is disintegrating." lamented( 教教 ) the 117thrichest man in America. "Most of our economic gains have gone to people at the very top of the income ladder, average income for a household of people of working age. by contrast, has fallen five years in a row." He noted that "Tens of millions of Americans live in fear that a major health problem can reduce them to bankruptcy." Wilbur Ross Jr. has echoed Zuckerman's anger over the bitter struggles faced by middle-class Americans. "It's an outrage that any American's life expectancy should be shortened simply because the company they worked for went bankrupt and ended health-care coverage." said the former chairman of the International Steel Group. What's happening? The very rich are just as trendy as you and I, and can be so when it comes to politics and policy. Given the recent change of control in Congress, the popularity of measures like increasing the minimum wage, and efforts by California's governor to offer universal health care, these guys don't need their own personal weathermen to know which way the wind blows. It’s possible that plutocrats(教教教教教教)are expressing solidarity with the struggling middle class as part of an effort to insulate themselves from confiscatory 教教教教教教 tax policies. But the prospect that income inequality will lead to higher taxes on the wealthy doesn’t keep plutocrats up at night. They can live with that. No, what they fear was that the political challenges of sustaining support for global economic integration will be more difficult in the United States because of what has happened to the distribution of income and economic insecurity. In other words, if middle-class Americans continue to struggle financially as the ultrawealthy 103 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 grow ever wealthier, it will be increasingly difficult to maintain political support for the free flow of goods, services, and capital across borders, and when the United States places obstacles in the way of foreign investors and foreign goods, it’s likely to encourage reciprocal action abroad, for people who buy and sell companies, or who allocate capital to markets all around the would, that’s the real nightmare. 57. What is the current topic of common interest among the very rich in America? A) the fate of the ultrawealthy people. B) the disintegration of the middle class. C) the inequality in the distribution of wealth. D) the confilict between the left and the right wing. 58. What do we learn from Mortimer Zuckerman's lamentation? A) many middle-income families have failed to make a bargain for better welfare. B) the American economic system has caused many companies to go bankrupt. C) the American nation is becoming more and more divided despite its wealth. D) the majority of Americans benefit little from the nation's growing wealth. 59. From the fifth paragraph we can learn that ____. A) the very rich are fashion-conscious B) the very rich are politically sensitive C) universal healh care is to be implemented throughout America D) congress has gained popularity by increasing the minimum wage 60. What is the real reason for plutocrats to express solidarity with the middle class?A) they want to protect themselves from confiscatory taxation. B) they know that the middle class contributes most to society. C) they want to gain support for global economic integration D) they feel increasingly threatened by economic insecurity. 61. What may happen if the United States places obstacies in the way of foreign investors and foreign goods? A) the prices of imported goods will inevitably soar beyond control. B) the investors will have to make great efforts to re-allocate capital. C) the wealthy will attempt to buy foreign companies across borders. D) foreign countries will place the same economic barriers in return. 104 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 芸芸芸芸 芸芸芸芸芸芸芸 样样样样 Short Answer Questions (15 minutes) Directions: In this part there is a short passage with five questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Joe Templer should have known better: after all, he works for a large auto-insurance company. It won't hurt to leave the key in the truck this once, he thought, as he filled his gas tank at a selfservice gas station. But moments later, as he was paying the money, he saw the truck being driven away. In 1987, 1.6 million motor vehicles were stolen in the United States — one every 20 seconds. 105 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 If current trends continue, experts predict annual vehicle thefts could exceed two million by the end of the decade. Vehicle theft is a common phenomenon, which has a direct impact on over four million victims a year. The cost is astonishing. Many police officials blame professional thieves for the high volume of thefts. It is a major money-maker for organized crime. Typically, stolen cars are taken to pieces and the parts sold to individuals. But as many as 200,00 cars are smuggled out of the country every year. Most go to Latin America, the Middle East and Europe. Only about 15 percent car thefts result in arrest, because few police departments routinely conduct in-depth auto-investigations. When thieves are arrested, judges will often sentence them to probation ( 教教 ), not immediately put them in prison because the prisons are overcrowded with violent criminals. One exception is a Michigan program that assigns 92 police officers to work full-time on the state's 65,000 car theft cases a year. Since 1986, when the effort began, the state's auto-theft rate has fallen from second in the nation to ninth. How can you protect your car? If you live in a high-theft area or drive an expensive model, consider a security system. It may cost anywhere from $25 to $1,000.Some systems engage automatically — simply removing the key disables the fuel pump and the starter. When cars are equipped with such systems, thefts may drop by one-third. In some states, you may be able to use a device that transmits radio signals, allowing stolen cars to be tracked by police. Questions: (71) What is the passage mainly about? (72) What does the author think Joe Templer should be blamed for? (73) How serious did the author predict the annual vehicle theft could be in the United States in 1989? (74) What are the two ways thieves sell the stolen cars? (75) What type of security system can help the police track down a stolen car? Key to Short Answer Questions: (71) Car theft in the U.S. (72) His carelessness./Leaving his key in the truck. (73) More than 2 million cars would be stolen. (74) Selling their parts at home or smuggling them abroad. (75) A device that transmits radio signals. 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教(教教教教教教教教教教教教教教)教 (71) A. Vehicle theft. 106 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 B. About the car stolen problem in United States. C. The passage says about the high vehicle theft in American. D. The passage mainly talk about Auto-theft in the U.S. E. The annual vehicle thefts is serious in the U.S. F. thefts./A social problem of the United States. 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 A 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 2 教教教教 B 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教教教教教教教教教 About the car stealing problem in the United States. 教教教教教教 0.5 教教教 1.5 教教教教 C 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教教教教教教教 tells about 教 教 says about; 教 教教教教教教“教教教教教教”教教教 the high rate of vehicle theft; 教 教教教教教教教教教教 America 教 教 教 American( 教 教 教 ) 教 教 教 教 教 教 教 The passage tells about the high rate of vehicle theft in America/the U.S. 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教 0.5 教教教教教教教教教教 0.5 教教教 1.5 教教教教 D 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 The passage mainly talks about Auto-theft in the U.S.教教教教教教教教教教 0.5 教教教 1.5 教教教教 E 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 annual, 教 0.5 教教教教教教教 教教教教 0.5 教教教 1 教教教教教教教教The vehicle thefts are serious in the U.S.教教 F 教教教教教教教 0 教教 (72) A. Leaving his key in the truck. B. He should have taken his key with him. C. He leaves the key in the truck this once. D. He should have not left his key in the truck. E. He forgot his key in the car and he didn't buy a security system. F. Himself. 教教教教教教教教教教教“教教教教教教教教教”教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 (教教教教教教教教教教教)教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教教教教教教教“教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教”教教 A 教 B 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 2 教教教教 C 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 He left the key in the truck this once. 教 0.5 教教教 1.5 教教教教 D 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教He should not have left his key in the truck. 教 0.5 教教教 1.5 教教教教 E 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教“he didn't buy a security system”教教 0.5 教教教教教教教教教教教教“教教教教教教教教教”教教教“left his key in the car”教教教教“forgot”教教 0.5 教教教 1 教教教教 F 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 0 教教 (73) A. The vehicle thefts could exceed two million. B. If current trends continue, experts predict annual vehicle thefts could exceed two million by the end of the decade. C. Vehicle thefts could exceeded two million to 3.6 million in the United States in 1989. D. 3.6 million motor vehicle would be stolen. E. 2 million vehicle theft. F. The annual vehicle thefts could be more and more. 教教教教教教教教 1989 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 1989 教教教教教 200 教教教教 A 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 2 教教教教 B 教教教教 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 0.5 教教教 1.5 教教教教 C 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教3.6 million, 教 0.5 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 ed 教教教教 0.5 教教 教教教教 1 教教教教 D 教教教教教教3.6 million 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 0 教教教教 E 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教“教教 200 教”教教教教教 0 教教教教 F 教教教教教教 0 教教 (74) A. Disassemble them and sell the parts, or smuggle them abroad. B. One is taking the stolen cars to pieces and selling it to individuals. Another is smuggling out of the country. C. They took them to pieces and sold them to individuals. 107 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 D. One is taking cars to pieces and solding the parts t individuals, the other is sending to foreign countries to sell. E. Taking the cars to pieces and smuggling to other countries are two ways. F. They take cars to pieces or sell to individuals. 教教教教教教教教“教教教教教教教教教教教教教教”教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 A 教教教教教 教教教教教教教教 2 教教教教 B 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 it 教教教教教教教教 them, another 教教教 the other, 教教教 smuggling 教教教教教 them教教教教教 0.5 教教教教教 10 教教教教教 0.5 教教教 1 教教教教 C 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 1 教教教教 D 教教教教教教教教教 sending to foreign countries to sell 教教教教 smuggling, 教教教 1 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 solding 教教教教教教教 selling, 教 0.5 教教教教教教教教 0.5 教教教教 E 教教教教“教教”教 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 the two ways 教教教教教教教教 0.5 教教教教 F 教教教教教教教 0 教教 (75) A. Radio transmitting devices. B. The security system can transmit radio signals. C. a device that transmit radio signals. D. Automatical system which can simply remove the key disables the fuel pump and the starter or a device that transmit radio signals. E. A transmits radio signals. F. A security system. 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教“教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教”教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 A 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 2 教教教教 B 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 which/that 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 0.5 教教教 1.5 教教教教 C 教教教教教 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 A device that transmits radio signals, 教 0.5 教教教 1.5 教教教教 D 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 Automatical system which can simply remove the key disables the fuel pump and the starter, 教 0.5 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教教教教教教教教 0.5 教教教教 transmit 教教 transmits,教教教教教教 1 教教教教 E 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教 0 教教教教 F 教教教教教教教教教 0 教教 样样样样 Short Answer Questions (15 minutes) Directions: In this part there is a short passage with five questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words (not exceeding 10 words). I once knew a dog named Newton who had a unique sense of humour. Whenever I tossed out a Frisbee(教教) for him to chase, he'd take off in hot pursuit but then seem to lose track of it. Moving back and forth only a yard or two from the toy, Newton would look all around, even up into the trees. He seemed genuinely puzzled. Finally, I'd give up and head into the field to help him out. But no sooner would I get within 10 ft. of him than he would run invariably straight over to the Frisbee, grab it and start running like mad, looking over his shoulder with what looked suspiciously like a grin. 108 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Just about every pet owner has a story like this and is eager to share it with anyone who will listen. On very short notice, TIME reporters came up with 25 stories about what each is convinced is the smartest pet in the world. Among them: the cat who closes the door behind him when he goes into the bathroom; the cat who uses a toilet instead of a litter box … and flushes it afterward; the dog who goes wild when he sees his owner putting on blue jeans instead of a dress because jeans mean it is time to play; and the cat who used to wait patiently at the bus stop every day for a little girl, then walk her the six blocks home, and so on. These behaviours are certainly clever, but what do they mean? Was Newton really deceiving? Can a cat really desire privacy in the toilet? In short, do household pets really have a mental and emotional life? Their owners think so, but until recently, animal behaviour experts would have gone mad on hearing such a question. The worst sin in their moral vocabulary was anthropomorphism(教教教 ), projecting human traits onto animals. A dog or a cat might behave as if it were angry, lonely, sad, happy or confused, but that was only in the eye of the viewer.What was going on, they insisted, was that the dog or cat had been conditioned, through a perhaps unintentional series of punishments and rewards, to behave in a certain way. The behaviour was a mechanical result of the training. Questions: 1. What did Newton seem puzzled about? 2. Why does the author say Newton had unique sense of humour? 3. What made it possible for the TIME reporters to come up with so many interesting stories about pets? 4. What belief about pet behaviour was unacceptable to experts of animal behaviour? 5. What is the explanation of animal-behaviour experts for the “clever” behaviour of pets? Unit 1 Part Ⅳ Short Answer Questions (15 minutes) Directions: In this part there is a short passage with five questions or incomplete statements. 109 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words (not exceeding 10 words). Joe Templer should have known better: after all, he works for a large auto-insurance company. It won't hurt to leave the key in the truck this once, he thought, as he filled his gas tank at a selfservice gas station. But moments later, as he was paying the money, he saw the truck being driven away. In 1987, 1.6 million motor vehicles were stolen in the United States — one every 20 seconds. If current trends continue, experts predict annual vehicle thefts could exceed two million by the end of the decade. Vehicle theft is a common phenomenon, which has a direct impact on over four million victims a year. The cost is astonishing. Many police officials blame professional thieves for the high volume of thefts. It is a major money-maker for organized crime. Typically, stolen cars are taken to pieces and the parts sold to individuals. But as many as 200,000 cars are smuggled out of the country every year. Most go to Latin America, the Middle East and Europe. Only about 15 percent car thefts result in an arrest, because few police departments routinely conduct in-depth auto-investigations. When thieves are arrested, judges will often sentence them to probation( 教 教 ), not immediately put them in prison because the prisons are overcrowded with violent criminals. One exception is a Michigan program that assigns 92 police officers to work full-time on the state's 65,000 car theft cases a year. Since 1986, when the effort began, the state's auto-theft rate has fallen from second in the nation to ninth. How can you protect your car? If you live in a high-theft area or drive an expensive model, consider a security system. It may cost anywhere from $25 to $1,000. Some systems engage automatically — simply removing the key disables the fuel pump and the starter. When cars are equipped with such systems, thefts may drop by one-third. In some states, you may be able to use a device that transmits radio signals, allowing stolen cars to be tracked by police. Questions:(教教教教教教教教教教教教 10 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教) 71. What is the passage mainly about? 72. What does the author think Joe Templer should be blamed for? 73. How serious did the author predict the annual vehicle theft could be in the United States in 1989? 110 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 74. What are the two ways theives sell the stolen cars? 75. What type of security system can help the police track down a stolen car? Unit 2 Part Ⅳ Short Answer Questions (15 minutes) Directions: In this part there is a short passage with five questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words (not exceeding 10 words). One summer my wife Chris and I were invited by friends to row down the Colorado River in a boat. Our expedition included many highly successful people — the kind who have staffs to take care of life's daily work. But in the wilder rapids, all of us naturally set aside any pretenses ( 教教 ) and put out backs into every stroke to keep the boat from tumbling over. At each night's encampment, we all hauled supplies and cleaned dishes. After only two days in the river, people accustomed to being spoiled and indulged had become a team, working together to cope with the unpredictable twists and turns of the river. I believe that in life — as well as on boat trips — teamwork will make all our journeys successful ones. The rhythms of teamwork have been the rhythms of my life. I played basketball alongside famous players, and the team I now coach, the New York Knicks, has recovered from years of adversity to become a major contender in the 1990s. I'm persuaded that teamwork is the key to making dreams come true. We all play on a number of teams in our lives—as part of a family, as a citizen, as a member of an agreement, written or unwritten. It contains the values and goals for every team member. For example, in the late 1970s a General Motors plant in Fremont, Calif, was the scene of constant warfare between labor and management. Distrust ran so high that the labor contract was hundreds of pages of tricky legal terms. GM spent millions trying to keep the facility up to date, but productivity and quality were continually poor. Absenteeism (教教) was so out of control that the production line couldn't even start up on some mornings. Finally in the early 1980s, GM shut down the plant. 111 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 GM became convinced that it had to create new production systems based on teamwork. In the mid-1980s it reopened the Fremont plant with Toyota, starting from scratch (教教教教) with a much simpler and shorter labor contract. It promised that executive salaries would be reduced and jobs performed by outside sellers would be given to employees before any layoffs were considered. Over a hundred job classifications were cut to just two. Instead of doing one boring job over and over, workers agreed to be part of small teams, spending equal time on various tasks. Questions: (教教:教教教教教教教教教 10 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教) S1. What comment did the author make about the highly successful people travelling with him? S2. Why was it easy for boats to tumble over in the Colorado? S3. What happened to the New York Knicks in the 1980s? S4. What caused the sharp conflict in the GM plant in the late 1970s? S5. What spirit was encouraged in the reopened GM plant? Unit 3 Part Ⅳ Short Answer Questions (15 minutes) Directions: In this part there is a short passage with five questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words (not exceeding 10 words). 112 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Most Americans spend far more of their leisure time with the mass media than in any other occupation. In addition, most of us hear, see, or read some of the media while engaged in other activities. Thus an extremely large number of our waking hours are spent with the mass media. Of all the media, television is clearly dominant, with newspapers a close second, at least as a source of news and other information. Our exposure to all media is important, however, because all of them contribute materials for the construction of that world in our heads. For most people, increased use of one medium does not decrease use of another. In fact, in certain cases, and especially for certain purposes, the more one uses one medium, the more likely one is to use others. There are various factors that can cause you to expose yourself to the media selectively, avoiding much of the material with which you disagree. Some of that selective exposure is probably due to the psychological pressure you feel to avoid the discomfort caused by confrontation with facts and ideas contrary to your beliefs, attitudes, or behavior. However, some selective exposure is not due to the pressure for consistency but to other factors, such as your age, education, and even the area in which you live and the people with whom you associate. Quite a different sort of factor that affects your media experiences is the social context of exposure: whether you are alone or with others when you are exposed to a medium; whether you are at home, at the office, in a theater, and so on. These contexts are as much as a potential part of the message you will form as film images on the screen or words on the page. In addition, that social context affects — both directly and indirectly — the media and the media content to which you become exposed. New friends or colleagues get you interested in different things. Other members of the family often select media content that you would not have selected, and you become exposed to it. These various factors have so much influence on your media exposure that so little of that exposure is planned. Questions: (教教教教教教教教教教教教 10 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教) S1. Exposure to all media is important and people sometimes tend to use more media if S2. Why are newspapers considered as an important medium according to the passage? S3. For one reason or another, people's exposure to the media is often 113 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 S4. Apart from personal preferences, what determines one's choice of the media and media content? S5. The last sentence of the passage indicates that one's exposure to the media is Unit 4 Part Ⅳ Short Answer Questions (15 minutes) Directions: In this part there is a short passage with five questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words (not exceeding 10 words). Many parents who welcome the idea of turning off the TV and spending more time with the family are still worried that without TV they would constantly be on call as entertainers for their children. They remember thinking up all sorts of things to do when they were kids. But their own kids seem different, less resourceful, somehow. When there's nothing to do, these parents observe regretfully, their kids seem unable to come up with any thing to do besides turning on the TV. One father, for example, says, “When I was a kid, we were always thinking up things to do, projects and games. We certainly never complained in an annoying way to our parents, ‘I have nothing to do!’” He compares this with his own children today:“They're simply lazy. If someone doesn't entertain them, they'll happily sit there watching TV all day.” There is one word for this father's disappointment: unfair. It is as if he were disappointed in them for not reading Greek though they have never studied the language. He deplores( 教 教 ) his children's lack of inventiveness, as if the ability to play were something innate( 教 教 教 ) that his children are missing. In fact, while the tendency to play is built into the human species, the actual ability to play — to imagine, to invent, to elaborate on reality in a playful way — and the ability to gain fulfillment from it, these are skills that have to be learned and developed. Such disappointment, however, is not only unjust, it is also destructive. Sensing their parents' disappointment, children come to believe that they are, indeed, lacking something, and that this makes them less worthy of admiration and respect. Giving children the opportunity to develop new resources, to enlarge their horizons and discover the pleasures of doing things on their own is, on the other hand, a way to help children develop a confident feeling about themselves as capable and interesting people. 114 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Questions: (教教教教教教教教教教教教 10 教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教教) S1. According to many parents, without TV, their children would like them to S2. Many parents think that, instead of watching a lot of TV, their children should . S3. The father often blames his children for not being able to entertain themselves. This is unfair because they . S4. When parents show constant disappointment in their children, the destructive effect is that the children will . S5. Developing children's self-confidence helps bring them up to be . Unit 5 Part Ⅳ Short Answer Questions (15 minutes) Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2. Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage. America is a country that now sits atop the cherished myth that work provides rewards, that working people can support their families. It's a myth that has become so divorced from reality that it might as well begin with the words "Once upon a time." Today 1.6 million New Yorkers suffer from "food insecurity," which is a fancy way of saying they don't have enough to eat. Some are the people who come in at night and clean the skyscrapers that glitter along the river. Some pour coffee and take care of the aged parents of the people who live in those buildings. The American Dream for the well-to-do grows from the bowed backs of the working poor, who too often have to choose between groceries and rent. 115 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 In a new book called "The Betrayal of Work", Beth Shulman says that even in the booming 1990s one out of every four American workers made less than $8.70 an hour, an income equal to the government's poverty level for a family of four. Many, if not most, of these workers had no health care, sick pay or retirement provisions. We ease our consciences, Shulman writes, by describing these people as "low skilled," as though they're not important or intelligent enough to deserve more. But low-skilled workers today are better educated than ever before, and they constitute the linchpin (教教) of American industry. When politicians crow (教教教教教教) that happy days are here again because jobs are on the rise, it's these jobs they're really talking about. Five of the 10 occupations expected to grow big in the next decade are in the lowest-paying job groups. And before we sit back and decide that's just the way it is, it's instructive to consider the rest of the world. While the bottom 10 percent of American workers earn just 37 percent of our average wage, their counterparts in other industrialized countries earn upwards of 60 percent. And those are countries that provide health care and child care, which eases the economic pinch considerably. Almost 40 years ago, when Lyndon Johnson declared war on poverty, a family with a car and a house in the suburbs felt prosperous. Today that same family may well feel poor, overwhelmed by credit card debt, a second mortgage and the cost of the stuff that has become the backbone of American life. When the middle class feels poor, the poor have little chance for change, or even recognition. 47. By saying "it might as well begin with the words ‘Once upon a time'" (Line 3, Para.1), the author suggests that the American myth is ________. 48. What is the American Dream of the well-to-do built upon? 49. Some Americans try to make themselves feel less guilty by attributing the poverty of the working people to ________. 50. We learn from the passage that the difference in pay between the lowest paid and the average worker in America is ________ than that in other industrialized countries. 51. According to the author, how would an American family with a car and a house in the suburbs probably feel about themselves today? 116 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Unit 6 Part Ⅳ Short Answer Questions (15 minutes) Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2. Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage. I’ve heard from and talked to many people who described how Mother Nature simplified their lives for them. They’d lost their home and many or all of their possessions through fires, floods, earthquakes, or some other disaster. Losing everything you own under such circumstances can be distressing, but the people I’ve heard from all saw their loss, ultimately as a blessing. “The fire saved us the agony of deciding what to keep and what to get rid of,” one woman wrote. And once all those things were no longer there, she and her husband saw how they had weighed them down and complicate their lives. “There was so much stuff we never used and that was just taking up space. We vowed when we started over, we’d replace only what we needed, and this time we’d do it right. We’ve kept our promise: we don’t have much now, but what we have is exactly what we want.” Though we’ve never had a catastrophic loss such as that, Gibbs and I did have a close call shortly before we decided to simplify. At that time we lived in a fire zone. One night a firestorm rages through and destroyed over six hundred homes in our community. That tragedy gave us the opportunity to look objectively at the goods we’d accumulated. We saw that there was so much we could get rid of and only never miss, but be better off without. Having almost lost it all, we found it much easier to let go of the things we knew we’d never use again. Obviously, there’s a tremendous difference between getting rid of possessions and losing them through a natural disaster without having a say in the matter. And this is not to minimize the tragedy and pain such a loss can generate. But you might think about how you would approach the acquisition process if you had it to do all over again. Look around your home and make a list of what you would replace. Make another list of things you wouldn’t acquire again no matter what, and in fact would be happy to be rid of. 117 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 When you’re ready to start unloading some of your stuff, that list will be a good place to start. 47. Many people whose possessions were destroyed in natural disasters eventually considered their loss ________. 48. Now that all their possessions were lost in the fire, the woman and her husband felt that their lives had been ________. 49. What do we know about the author’s house from the sentence “Gibbs and did have a close call ...” (Line 1-2, Para. 4)? 50. According to the author, getting rid of possessions and losing them through a natural disaster are vastly ________. 51. What does the author suggest people do with unnecessary things? Unit 7 Part Ⅳ Short Answer Questions (15 minutes) Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2. Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage. Google is a world-famous company, with its headquarters in Mountain View, California. It was set up in a Silicon Valley garage in 1998, and inflated ( 教教 ) with the Internet bubble. Even when everything around it collapsed the company kept on inflating. Google’s search engine is so widespread across the world that search became Google, and google became a verb. The world fell in love with the effective, fascinatingly fast technology. Google owes much of its success to the brilliance of S. Brin and L. Page, but also to a series 118 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 of fortunate events. It was Page who, at Stanford in 1996, initiated the academic project that eventually became Google’s search engine. Brin, who had met Page at a student orientation a year earlier, joined the project early on. They were both Ph.D. candidates when they devised the search engine which was better than the rest and, without any marketing, spread by word of mouth from early adopters to, eventually, your grandmother. Their breakthrough, simply put, was that when their search engine crawled the Web, it did more than just look for word matches, it also tallied (教教) and ranked a host of other critical factors like how websites link to one another. That delivered far better results than anything else. Brin and Page meant to name their creation Googol (the mathematical term for the number 1 followed by 100 zeroes), but someone misspelled the word so it stuck as Google. They raised money from prescient ( 教教教教教教 ) professors and venture capitalists, and moved off campus to turn Google into business. Perhaps their biggest stroke of luck came early on when they tried to sell their technology to other search engines, but no one met their price, and they built it up on their own. The next breakthrough came in 2000, when Google figured out how to make money with its invention. It had lots of users, but almost no one was paying. The solution turned out to be advertising, and it’s not an exaggeration to say that Google is now essentially an advertising company, given that that’s the source of nearly all its revenue. Today it is a giant advertising company, worth $100 billion. 47. Apart from a series of fortunate events, what is it that has made Google so successful? 48. Google’s search engine originated from ________ started by L. Page. 49. How did Google’s search engine spread all over the world? 50. Brin and Page decided to set up their own business because no one would ________. 51. The revenue of the Google company is largely generated from ________. 119 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Unit 8 Part Ⅳ Short Answer Questions (15 minutes) Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2. Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage. Men, these days, are embracing fatherhood with the round-the-clock involvement their partners have always dreamed of –handling night feedings, packing lunches and bandaging knees. But unlike women, many find they’re negotiating their new roles with little support or information. “Men in my generation (aged 25-40) have a fear of becoming dads because we have no role models,” says Jon Smith, a writer. They often find themselves excluded from mothers’ support networks, and are eyed warily (教教教) on the playground. The challenge is particularly evident in the work—place. There, men are still expected to be breadwinners climbing the corporate ladder; traditionally-minded bosses are often unsympathetic to family needs. In Denmark most new fathers only take two weeks of paternity leave ( 教教教教教教 )— even though they are allowed 34 days. As much as if not more so than women, fathers struggle to be taken seriously when they request flexible arrangements. Though Wilfried-Fritz Maring, 54, a data-bank and Internet specialist with German firm FIZ Karlsruhe, feels that the time he spends with his daughter outweighs any disadvantages, he admits, “With my decision to work from home I dismissed any opportunity for promotion.” Mind-sets (教教教教) are changing gradually. When Maring had a daughter, the company equipped him with a home office and allowed him to choose a job that could be performed from there. Danish telecom company TDC initiated an internal campaign last year to encourage dads to take paternity leave: 97 percent now do. “When an employee goes on paternity leave and is with his kids, he gets a new kind of training: in how to keep cool under stress,” says spokesperson Christine Elberg Holm. For a new generation of dads, kids may come before the company –but it’s a shift that benefits both. 47. Unlike women, men often get little support or information from ______________. 48. Besides supporting the family, men were also expected to ________. 120 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 49. Like women, men hope that their desire for a flexible schedule will be _____________. 50. When Maring was on paternity leave, he was allowed by his company to work___________. 51. Christine Holm believes paternity leave provides a new kind of training for men in that it can help them cope with _____________. 121 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 芸芸芸芸 芸芸芸芸 Unit 1 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes) Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet1. For questions 14, mark Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage; N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage; NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage. For questions 5-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage. Rainforests Tropical rainforests are the most diverse ecosystem( 教教教教)on Earth, and also the oldest. Today, tropical rainforests cover only 6 percent of the Earth's ground surface, but they are home to over half of the planet's plant and animal species. What Is a Rainforest? Generally speaking, a rainforest is an environment that receives high rainfall and is dominated by tall trees. A wide range of ecosystems fall into this category, of course. But most of the time when people talk about rainforests, they mean the tropical rainforests located near the equator. These forests receive between 160 and 400 inches of rain per year. The total annual rainfall is spread pretty evenly throughout the year, and the temperature rarely dips below 60 degrees Fahrenheit. This steady climate is due to the position of rainforests on the globe. Because of the orientation of the Earth's axis, the Northern and Southern hemispheres each spend part of the year tilted away from the sun. Since rainforests are at the middle of the globe, located near the equator, they are not especially affected by this change. They receive nearly the same amount of sunlight, and therefore heat, all year. Consequently, the weather in these regions remains fairly constant. 122 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 The consistently wet, warm weather and ample sunlight give plant life everything it needs to thrive. Trees have the resources to grow to tremendous heights. and they live for hundreds, even thousands, of years. These giants, which reach 60 to 150 ft in the air, form the basic structure of the rainforest. Their top branches spread wide in order to capture maximum sunlight. This creates a thick canopy(教教)level at the top of the forest, with thinner greenery levels underneath. Some large trees grow so tall that they even tower overthe canopy layer. As you go lower, down into the rainforest, you find less and less greenery. The forest floor is made up of moss, fungi, and decaying plant matter that has fallen from the upper layers. The reason for this decrease in greenery is very simple教The overabundance of plants gathering sunlight at the top of the forest blocks most sunlight from reaching the bottom of the forest, making it difficult for robust plants to thrive. The Forest for the Trees The ample sunlight and extremely wet climate of many tropical areas encourage the growth of towering trees with wide canopies. This thick top layer of the rainforest dictates the lives of all other plants in the forest. New tree seedlings rarely survive to make it to the top unless some older trees die, creating a "hole" in the canopy. When this happens, all of the seedlings on the ground level compete intensely to reach the sunlight. Many plant species reach the top of the forest by climbing the tall trees. It is much easier to ascend this way, because the plant doesn't have to form its own supporting structure. Some plant species, called epiphytes, grow directly on the surface of the giant trees. These plants, which include a variety of orchids and ferns, make up much of the under story, the layer of the rainforest right below the canopy. Epiphytes are close enough to the top to receive adequate light, and the runoff from the canopy layer provides all the water and nutrients(教教)they need, which is important since they don't have access to the nutrients in the ground. Stranglers and Buttresses Some epiphytes eventually develop into stranglers. They grow long, thick roots that extend down the tree trunk into the ground. As they continue to grow, the roots form a sort of web structure all around the tree. At the same time, the strangler plant's branches extend upward, spreading out into the canopy. Eventually, the strangler may block so much light from above, and absorb such a high percentage of nutrients from the ground below, that the host tree dies. Competition over nutrients is almost as intense as competition for light. The excessive rainfall rapidly dissolves nutrients in the soil, making it relatively infertile except at the top layers. For this reason, rainforest tree roots grow outward to cover a wider area, rather than downward to lower levels. This makes rainforest trees somewhat unstable, since they don't have very strong anchors in the ground. Some trees compensate for this by growing natural buttresses. These buttresses are 123 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 basically tree trunks that extend out from the side of the tree and down to the ground, giving the tree additional support. Rainforest trees are dependent on bacteria that are continually producing nutrients in the ground. Rainforest bacteria and trees have a very close, symbiotic(教教教) relationship. The trees provide the bacteria with food, in the form of fallen leaves and other material, and the bacteria break this material down into the nutrients that the trees need to survive. One of the most remarkable things about rainforest plant life is its diversity. The temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest are mainly composed of a dozen or so tree species. A tropical rainforest, on the other hand, might have 300 distinct tree species. All Creatures, Great and Small Rainforests are home to the majority of animal species in the world. And a great number of species who now live in other environments, including humans, originally inhabited the rainforests. Researchers estimate that in a large rainforest area, there may be more than 10 million different animal species. Most of these species have adapted for life in the upper levels of the rainforest, where food is most plentiful. Insects, which can easily climb or fly from tree to tree, make up the largest group(ants are the most abundant animal in the rainforest).Insect species have a highly symbiotic relationship with the plant life in a rainforest. The insects move from plant to plant, enjoying the wealth of food provided there. As they travel, the insects may pick up the plants' seeds, dropping them some distance away. This helps to disperse the population of the plant species over a larger area. The numerous birds of the rainforest also play a major part in seed dispersal. When they eat fruit from a plant, the seeds pass through their digestive system. By the time they excrete ( 教教) the seeds, the birds may have flown many miles away from the fruit-bearing tree. There are also a large number of reptiles and mammals in the rainforest. Since the weather is so hot and humid during the day, most rainforest mammals are active only at night, dusk or dawn. The many rainforest bat species are especially well adapted for this lifestyle. Using their sonar, bats navigate easily through the mass of trees in the rainforest, feeding on insects and fruit. While most rainforest species spend their lives in the trees, there is also a lot of life on the forest floor. Great apes, wild pigs, big cats and even elephants can all be found in rainforests. There are a number of people who live in the rainforests, as well. These tribes - which, up until recently, numbered in the thousands - are being forced out of the rainforests at an alarming rate because of deforestation. Deforestation In the past hundred years, humans have begun destroying rainforests at an alarming rate. Today, roughly 1.5 acres of rainforest are destroyed every second. People are cutting down the rainforests in pursuit of three major resources教 124 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 • Land for crops • Lumber for paper and other wood products • Land for livestock pastures In the current economy, people obviously have a need for all of these resources. But almost all experts agree that, over time, we will suffer much more from the destruction of the rainforests than we will benefit. The world's rainforests are an extremely valuable natural resource, to be sure, but not for their lumber or their land. They are the main cradle of life on Earth, and they hold millions of unique life forms that we have yet to discover. Destroying the rainforests is comparable to destroying an unknown planet-we have no idea what we're losing. If deforestation continues at its current rate, the world's tropical rainforests will be wiped out within 40 years. 1. Virtually all plant and animal species on Earth can be found in tropical rainforests. 2. There is not much change in the weather in the tropical rainforests all the year round. 3. The largest number of rainforests in the world are located on the African continent. 4. Below the canopy level of a tropical rainforest grows an overabundance of plants. 5. New tree seedlings will not survive to reach the canopy level unless ________. 6. Epiphytes, which form much of the under story of the rainforest, get all their water and nutrients from ________. 7. Stranglers are so called because they ________ by blocking the sunlight and competing for the nutrients. 8. Since rainforest bacteria and trees depend on each other for life, the relationship they form is termed ________. 9. Plant species are dispersed over a large area with the help of ________. 10. As we are still ignorant of millions of unique life forms in the rainforest, deforestation can be compared to the destruction of ________. Unit 2 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes) Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet1. For questions 14, mark Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage; N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage; NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage. 125 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 For questions 5-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage. Space Tourism Make your reservations now. The space tourism industry is officially open for business, and tickets are going for a mere $20 million for a one-week stay in space. Despite reluctance from National Air and Space Administration (NASA) 教 Russia made American businessman Dennis Tito the world’s first space tourist. Tito flew into space aboard a Russian Soyuz rocket that arrived at the International Space Station (ISS) on April 30, 2001. The second space tourist, South African businessman Mark Shuttleworth, took off aboard the Russian Soyuz on April 25, 2002, also bound for the ISS. Lance Bass of ‘N Sync was supposed to be the third to make the $20 million trip, but he did not join the three-man crew as they blasted off on October 30, 2002, due to lack of payment. Probably the most incredible aspect of this proposed space tour was that NASA approved of it. These trips are the beginning of what could be a profitable 21st century industry. There are already several space tourism companies planning to build suborbital vehicles and orbital cities within the next two decades. These companies have invested millions, believing that the space tourism industry is on the verge of taking off. In 1997, NASA published a report concluding that selling trips into space to private citizens could be worth billions of dollars. A Japanese report supports these findings, and projects that space tourism could be a $10 billion per year industry within the next two decades. The only obstacles to opening up space to tourists are the space agencies, who are concerned with safety and the development of a reliable, reusable launch vehicle. Space Accommodations Russia’s Mir space station was supposed to be the first destination for space tourists. But in March 2001教the Russian Aerospace Agency brought Mir down into the Pacific Ocean. As it turned out, bringing down Mir only temporarily delayed the first tourist trip into space. The Mir crash did cancel plans for a new reality-based game show from NBC, which was going to be called Destination Mir. The Survivor-like TV show was scheduled to air in fall 2001, Participants on the show were to go through training at Russia’s cosmonaut ( 教教教 ) training center, Star City. Each week, one of the participants would be eliminated from the show, with the winner receiving a trip to the Mir space station. The Mir crash has ruled out NBC’s space plans for now. NASA is against beginning space tourism until the International Space Station is completed in 2006. Russia is not alone in its interest in space tourism. There are several projects underway to commercialize space travel. Here are a few of the groups that might take tourists to space: Space Island Group is going to build a ring-shaped, rotating “commercial space 126 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 infrastructure ( 教 教 教 教 )” that will resemble the Discovery spacecraft in the movie “2001: A Space Odyssey.” Space Island says it will build its space city out of empty NASA space-shuttle fuel tanks (to start, it should take around 12 or so), and place it about 400 miles above Earth. The space city will rotate once per minute to create a gravitational pull one-third as strong as Earth’s. According to their vision statement. Space Adventures plans to “fly tens of thousand of people in space over the next 10-15 years and beyond, around the moon, and back, from spaceports both on Earth and in space, to and from private space stations, and board dozen of different vehicles...” Even Hilton Hotels has shown interest in the space tourism industry and possibility of building or co-funding a space hotel. However, the company did say that it believes such a space hotel is 15 to 20 years away. Initially, space tourism will offer simple accommodations at best. For instance, if the International Space Station is used as a tourist attraction, guests won’t find the luxurious surroundings of a hotel room on Earth. It has been designed for conducting research, not entertainment. However, the first generation of space hotels should offer tourists a much more comfortable experience. In regard to a concept for a space hotel initially planned by Space Island, such a hotel could offer guests every convenience they might find at a hotel on Earth, and some they might not. The small gravitational pull created by the rotating space city would allow space-tourists and residents to walk around and function facilities would be possible. Additionally, space tourists would even be able to take space walks. Many of these companies believe that they have to offer an extremely enjoyable experience in order for passengers to pay thousands, if not millions, of dollars to ride into space. So will space create another separation between the haves and have-nots? The Most Expensive Vacation Will space be an exotic retreat reserved for only the wealthy? Or will middle-class folks have a chance to take their families to space? Make no mistake about it, going to space will be the most expensive vacation you ever take. Prices right now are in the tens of millions of dollars. Currently, the only vehicles that can take you into space are the space shuttle and the Russian Soyuz, both of which are terribly inefficient. Each spacecraft requires millions of pounds of fuel to take off into space, which makes them expensive to launch. One pound of payload (教教教教) costs about $10,000 to put into Earth’s orbit. NASA and Lockheed Martin are currently developing a single-stage-to-orbit launch space plane, called the VentureStar, that could be launched for about a tenth of what the space shuttle costs to launch. If the VentureStar takes off, the number of people who could afford to take a trip 127 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 into space would move into the millions. In 1998, a joint report from NASA and the Space Transportation Association stated that improvements in technology could push fares for space travel as low as $50,000, and possibly down to $20,000 or $10,000 a decade later. The report concluded that a ticket price of $50,000, there could be 500,000 passengers flying into space each year. While still leaving out many people, these prices would open up space to a tremendous amount of traffic. Since the beginning of the space race, the general public has said, “Isn’t that great—when do I get to go?” Well, our chance might be closer than ever. Within the next 20 years, space planes could be taking off for the Moon at the same frequency as airplanes flying between New York and Los Angles. 1. Lance Bass wasn’t able to go on a tour of space because of health problems. 2. Several tourism companies believe space travel is going to be a new profitable industry. 3. The space agencies are reluctant to open up space to tourists. 4. Two Australian billionaires have been placed on the waiting list for entering space as private passengers. 5. The price for the winner in the fall 2001 NBA TV game show would have been ________. 6. Hilton Hotels believes it won’t be long before it is possible to build a ________. 7. In order for space tourists to walk around and function normally, it is necessary for the space city to create a ________. 8. What making going to space the most expensive vacation is the enormous cost involved in ________. 9. Each year 500,000 space tourists could be flying into space if ticket prices could be lowered to ________. 10. Within the next two decades, ________ could be as intercity air travel. Unit 3 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes) Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet1. For questions 14, mark Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage; N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage; NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage. For questions 5-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage. 128 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Seven Steps to a More Fulfilling Job Many people today find themselves in unfulfilling work situations. In fact, one in four workers is dissatisfied with their current job, according to the recent “Plans for 2004” survey. Their career path may be financially rewarding, but it doesn’t meet their emotional, social or creative needs. They’re stuck, unhappy, and have no idea what to do about it, except move to another job. Mary Lyn Miller, veteran career consultant and founder of the Life and Career Clinic, says that when most people are unhappy about their work, their first thought is to get a different job. Instead, Miller suggests looking at the possibility of a different life. Through her book, 8 Myths of Making a Living, as well as workshops, seminars and personal coaching and consulting, she has helped thousands of dissatisfied workers reassess life and work. Like the way of Zen, which includes understanding of oneself as one really is, Miller encourages job seekers and those dissatisfied with work or life to examine their beliefs about work and recognize that “in many cases your beliefs are what brought you to where you are today.” You may have been raised to think that women were best at nurturing and caring and, therefore, should be teachers and nurses. So that’s what you did. Or, perhaps you were brought up to believe that you should do what your father did, so you have taken over the family business, or become a dentist “just like dad.” If this sounds familiar, it’s probably time to look at the new possibilities for your future. Miller developed a 7-step process to help potential job seekers assess their current situation and beliefs, identify their real passion, and start on a journey that allows them to pursue their passion through work. Step 1: Willingness to do something different. Breaking the cycle of doing what you have always done is one of the most difficult tasks for job seekers. Many find it difficult to steer away from a career path or make a change, even if it doesn’t feel right. Miller urges job seekers to open their minds to other possibilities beyond what they are currently doing. Step 2: Commitment to being who you are, not who or what someone wants you to be. Look at the \gifts and talents you have and make a commitment to pursue those things that you love most. If you love the social aspects of your job, but are stuck inside an office or “chained to your desk” most of the time, vow to follow your instinct and investigate alternative careers and work that allow you more time to interact with others. Dawn worked as a manager for a large retail clothing store for several years. Though she had advanced within the company, she felt frustrated and longed to be involved with nature and the outdoors. She decided to go to school 129 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 nights and weekends to pursue her true passion by earning her master’s degree in forestry. She now works in the biotech forestry division of a major paper company. Step 3: Self-definition Miller suggests that once job seekers know who they are, they need to know how to sell themselves. “In the job market, you are a product. And just like a product, you most know the features and benefits that you have to offer a potential client, or employer.” Examine the skills and knowledge that you have identify how they can apply to your desired occupation. Your qualities will exhibit to employers why they should hire you over other candidates. Step 4: Attain a level of self-honoring. Self-honoring or self-love may seem like an odd step for job hunters, but being able to accept yourself, without judgment, helps eliminate insecurities and will make you more self-assured. By accepting who you are – all your emotions, hopes and dreams, your personality, and your unique way of being – you’ll project more confidence when networking and talking with potential employers. The power of self-honoring can help to break all the falsehoods you were programmed to believe – those that made you feel that you were not good enough, or strong enough, or intelligent enough to do what you truly desire. Step 5: Vision. Miller suggests that job seekers develop a vision that embraces the answer to “What do I really want to do?” one should create a solid statement in a dozen or so sentences that describe in detail how they see their life related to work. For instance, the secretary who longs to be an actress describes a life that allows her to express her love of Shakespeare on stage. A real estate agent, attracted to his current job because her loves fixing up old homes, describes buying properties that need a little tender loving care to make them more saleable. Step 6: Appropriate risk. Some philosophers believe that the way to enlightenment comes through facing obstacles and difficulties. Once people discover their passion, many are too scared to do anything about it. Instead, they do nothing. With this step, job seekers should assess what they are willing to give up, or risk, in pursuit of their dream. For one working mom, that meant taking night classes to learn new computer-aided design skills, while still earning a salary and keeping her day job. For someone else, it may mean quitting his or her job, taking out loan and going back to school full time. You’ll move one step closer to your ideal work life if you identify how much risk you are willing to take and the sacrifices you are willing to make. Step 7: Action. 130 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Some teachers of philosophy describe action in this way, “If one wants to get to the top of a mountain, just sitting at the foot thinking about it will not bring one there. It is by making the effort of climbing up the mountain, step by step, that eventually the summit is reached.” All too often, it is the lack of action that ultimately holds people back from attaining their ideals. Creating a plan and taking it one step at a time can lead to new and different job opportunities. Job-hunting tasks gain added meaning as you sense their importance in your quest for a more meaningful work life. The plan can include researching industries and occupations, talking to people who are in your desired area of work, taking classes, or accepting volunteer work in your targeted field. Each of these steps will lead you on a journey to a happier and more rewarding work life. After all, it is the journey, not the destination, that is most important. 1. According to the recent “Plans for 2004” survey, most people are unhappy with their current jobs. 2. Mary Lyn Miller’s job is to advise people on their life and career. 3. Mary Lyn Miller herself was once quite dissatisfied with her own work. 4. Many people find it difficult to make up their minds whether to change their career path. 5. According to Mary Lyn Miller, people considering changing their careers should commit themselves to the pursuit of ________. 6. In the job market, job seekers need to know how to sell themselves like ________. 7. During an interview with potential employers, self-honoring or self-love may help a job seeker to show ________. 8. Mary Lyn Miller suggests that a job seeker develop a vision that answers the question “________” 9. Many people are too scared to pursue their dreams because they are unwilling to ________. 10. What ultimately holds people back from attaining their ideals is ________. Unit 4 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes) Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet1. Seven way to Save the World Forget the old idea that conserving energy is a form of self-denial—riding bicycles, dimming the lights, and taking fewer showers. These days conservation is all about efficiency: getting the same—or better—results from just a fraction of the energy. When a slump in business travel 131 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 forced Ulrich Ramer to cut costs at his family—owned hotel in Germany, he replaced hundreds of the hotel’s wasteful light bulbs, getting the same light for 80 percent less power. He bought a new water boiler with a digitally controlled pump, and wrapped insulation around the pipes. Spending about 教 100,000 on these and other improvements, he slashed his 教 90,000 fuel and power bill by 教 60,000. As a bonus, the hotel’s lower energy needs have reduced its annual carbon emissions by more than 200 metric tons. “For us, saving energy has been very, very profitable,” he says. “And most importantly, we’re not giving up a single comfort for our guests.” Efficiency is also a great way to lower carbon emissions and help slow global warming. But the best argument for efficiency is its cost—or, more precisely, its profitability. That’s because quickly growing energy demand requires immense investment in new supply, not to mention the drain of rising energy prices. No wonder efficiency has moved to the top of the political agenda. On Jan. 10, the European Union unveiled a plan to cut energy use across the continent by 20 percent by 2020. Last March, China imposed a 20 percent increase in energy efficiency by 2020. Even George W. Bush, the Texas oilman, is expected to talk about energy conservation in his State of the Union speech this week. The good news is that the world is full of proven, cheap ways to save energy. Here are the seven that could have the biggest impact. Insulate Space heating and cooling eats up 36 percent of all the world’s energy. There’s virtually no limit to how much of that can be saved, as prototype “zero-energy homes” in Switzerland and Germany have shown. There’s been a surge in new ways of keeping heat in and cold out (or vice versa). The most advanced insulation follows the law of increasing returns: if you add enough you can scale down or even eliminate heating and air-conditioning equipment, lowering costs even before you start saving on utility bills. Studies have shown that green workplaces (ones that don’t constantly need to have the heat or air-conditioner running) have higher worker productivity and lower sick rates. Change Bulbs Lighting eats up 20 percent of the world’s electricity, or the equivalent of roughly 600,000 tons of coal a day. Forty percent of that powers old-fashioned incandescent light bulbs—a 19thcentury technology that wastes most of the power it consumes on unwanted heat. Compact fluorescent lamps, or CFLS, not only use 75 to 80 percent less electricity than incandescent bulbs to generate the same amount of light, but they also last 10 times longer. Phasing old bulbs out by 2030 would save the output of 650 power plants and avoid the release of 700 million tons of carbon into the atmosphere each year. Comfort Zone 132 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 Water boilers, space heaters and air conditioners have been notoriously inefficient. The heat pump has altered that equation. It removes heat from the air outside or the ground below and uses it to supply heat to a building or its water supply. In the summer, the system can be reversed to cool buildings as well. Most new residential buildings in Sweden are already heated with ground-source heat pumps. Such systems consume almost no conventional fuel at all. Several countries have used subsidies to jump-start the market, including Japan, where almost I million heat pumps have been installed in the past two years to heat water for showers and hot tubs. Remake Factories From steel mills to paper factories, industry eats up about a third of the world’s energy. The opportunities to save are vast. In Ludwigshafen, German chemicals giant BASF runs an interconnected complex of more than 200 chemical factories, where heat produced by one chemical process is used to power the next. At the Ludwigshafen site site alone, such recycling of heat and energy saves the company 教 200 million a year and almost half its CO2 emissions. Now BASF is doing the same for new plants in China. “Optimizing ( 教教 ) energy efficiency is a decisive competitive advantage,” says BASF CEO Jurgen Hambrecht. Green Driving A quarter of the world’s energy---including two thirds of the annual production of oil—is used for transportation. Some savings come free of charge: you can boost fuel efficiency by 6 percent simply by keeping your car’s tires properly inflated ( 教教 ). Gasoline-electric hybrid( 教教教 教 ) models like the Toyota Prius improve mileage by a further 20 percent over conventional models. A Better Fridge More than half of all residential power goes into running household appliances, producing a fifth of the world’s carbon emissions. And that’s true even though manufacturers have already hiked the efficiency of refrigerators and other white goods by as much as 70 percent since the 1980s. According to an International Energy Agency study, if consumers chose those models that would save them the most money over the life of the appliance, they’d cut global residential power consumption (and their utility bills) by 43 percent. Flexible Payment Who says you have to pay for all your conservation investments? “Energy service contractors” will pay for retrofitting 教 教 教 教 教 教 in return for a share of the client’s annual utility-bill savings. In Beijing, Shenwu Thermal Energy Technology Co. specializes in retrofitting China’s steel furnaces. Shenwu puts up the initial investment to install a heat exchanger that preheats the 133 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 air going into the furnace, slashing the client’s fuel costs. Shenwu pockets a cut of those savings, so both Shenwu and the client profit. If saving energy is so easy and profitable, why isn’t everyone doing it? It has do with psychology and a lack of information. Most of us tend to look at today’s price tag more than tomorrow’s potential saving. That holds double for the landlord or developer, who won’t actually see a penny of the savings his investment in better insulation or a better heating system might generate. In many people’s minds, conservation is still associated with self-denial. Many environmentalists still push that view. Smart governments can help push the market in the right direction. The EU’s 1994 law on labeling was such a success that it extended the same idea to entire buildings last year. To boost the market value of efficiency, all new buildings are required to have an “energy pass” detailing power and heating consumption. Countries like Japan and Germany have successively tightened building codes, requiring an increase in insulation levels but leaving it up to builders to decide how to meet them. The most powerful incentives, of course, will come from the market itself. Over the past year, sky-high fuel prices have focused minds on efficiency like never before. Ever-increasing pressure to cut costs has finally forced more companies to do some math on their energy use. Will it be enough? With global demand and emissions rising so fast, we may not have any choice but to try. Efficient technology is here now, proven and cheap. Compared with all other options, it’s the biggest, easiest and most profitable bang for the buck. 1. What is said to be best way to conserve energy nowadays? A) Raising efficiency. B) Cutting unnecessary costs.. C) Finding alternative resources. D) Sacrificing some personal comforts. 2. What does the European Union plan to do? A) Diversify energy supply. B) Cut energy consumption. C) Reduce carbon emissions. D) Raise production Raise production efficiency. 3. If you add enough insulation to your house, you may be able to _____________. A) improve your work environment B) cut your utility bills by half C) get rid of air-conditioners D) enjoy much better health 4. How much of the power consumed by incandescent bulbs is converted into light? A) A small portion. 134 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 B) Some 40 percent. C) Almost half. D) 75 to 80 percent. 5. Some countries have tried to jump-start the market of heat pumps by __________. A)upgrading the equipment B)encouraging investments C) implementing high-tech D)providing subsidies 6. German chemicals giant BASF saves 教200 million a year by ___________. A) recycling heat and energy B) setting up factories in China C) using the newest technology D) reducing the CO2 emissions of its plants 7. Global residential power consumption can be cut by 43 percent if ___________. A) we increase the insulation of walls and water pipes B) We choose simpler models of electrical appliances C) We cut down on the use of refrigerators and other white goods D) We choose the most efficient models of refrigerators and other white goods 8. Energy service contractors profit by taking a part of clients____________. 9. Many environmentalists maintain the view that conservation has much to do with _____. 10. The strongest incentives for energy conservation will derive from __________. 135 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 136 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 芸芸芸芸 芸芸芸芸 Passage 1 We live in a world of violence. The value of human life has reached to, simply, a few __1__ organs in a hollow body. Life is no longer viewed as the ___2___and amazing gift that it is. Human life is now only a temporary, useful__3__.And, when it is no longer useful? Well, it can be thrown away, like used Kleenex. This disrespect for life has been a __4__ of numerous hours of senseless violence that society feeds into people’s brains every day. Yet, media representatives defend the entertainment industry, __5__any direct link between violent media and violent behavior. In many people’s living rooms, there __6__ an outlet for violence that often goes unnoticed. It is the television. The children who view it are often pulled into its realistic world of violent __7__ with sometimes__8__results. Much effort has gone into showing why this glowing box, and the action that takes place within it, mesmerizes children. Research shows that it is__9__ a major source of violent behavior in children. The statistics prove time and time again that aggression and television viewing do __10__ hand in hand. devastating go scenes hardly number sacred sits denying definitely vital commodity science result visual including 137 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 答答 芸芸芸芸 芸芸芸芸芸芸芸 Unit 1 21.D 22.D 23.A 24.B 31.A 32.A 33.C 25.B 26.C 27.A 28.C 29.B 30.D 34.B 35.D 36.D 39.B 40.C 24.C 25.D 26.C 27.B 28.A 29.D 30.A 37.C 38.C Unit 2 21.B 22.A 23.C 31.B 32.C 33.A 34.D 35.B 36.D 37.D 38.A 39.C 40.B 21.B 22.C 23.A 24.D 25.B 26.D 27.B 28.C 29.D 30.A 31.B 32.C 33.C Unit3 34.A 35.B 36.A 37.D 38.A 39.C 40.D 14.B 15.D 16.C 23.C 24.B 25.D 26.A 27.D 22.A 23.B 24.C 25.D 26.D 27.A 28.C 29.B 30.A 34.A 35.B 36.D 37.C 38.A 39.B Unit 4 11.C 12.A 13.C 21.A 22.B 17.C 18.D 19.D 20.A 28.C 29.A 30.B Unit 5 21.D 31.A 32.D 33.C 40.C Unit 6 21.C 22.A 23.C 24.B 25.D 26.A 27.C 28.D 29.B 30.A 31.B 32.C 34.A 35.D 36.A 37.B 38.C 39.C 40.A 33.D Unit 7 138 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 21. A 22.D 31.B 23.C 32.A 33.D 24.C 25.B 34.A 35.D 教教 26.C 27.A 28.A 29.B 36.B 37.A 38.D 30.A 39.C 40.D Unit 8 21.B 22.A 23.A 24.B 31.D 32.C 25.B 33.A 34.A 35.B 26.B 27.C 28.A 29.D 30.C 36.B 37.B 40.C 38.D 39.D Unit 9 21.C 22.A 23.D 24.C 25.A 26.B 27.C 28.D 31.B 32.B 33.B 34.A 35.A 36.C 21.A 22.B 23.C 24.A 25.D 31.B 33.B 34.D 35.A 36.C 37.A 38.C 24.D 25.A 26.B 27.A 28.C 29.A 30.C 37.D 38.B 29.A 30.A 39.D 40.B Unit 10 32.C 26.B 27.D 28.C 29.A 30.D 39.D 40.D Unit 11 21.D 22.C 23.B 31.D 32.D 33.A 34.B 35.C 36.D 23.B 25.D 26.B 27.D 37.B 38.C 39.C 40.A Unit 12 21.A 22.D 31.D 32.A 33.D 24.C 34.A 35.C 36.D 28.A 29.B 30.C 37.B 38.D 39.C 40.A Unit 13 11.B 12.C 13.A 14.D 15.D 21.C 22.B 23.D 25.A 26.D 24.C 16.A 17.B 18.D 19.A 20.C 27.B 28.C 29.D 30.A Unit 14 21.D 22.B 23.A 24.A 25.C 26.D 27.A 28.C 29.B 30.D 31.B 32.C 33.A 34.D 35.B 36.D 37.B 38.C 39.A 40.D 55.A 56.C 57.C 58.B 59.D 60.C Unit 15 52.A 53.B 54.D 61.A Unit 16 139 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 52.B 53.D 教教 54.A 55.D 56.B 57.B 58.C 59.D 60.C 61.C 54.A 55.D 56.C 57.B 58.B 59.D 60.C 61.C Unit 17 52.B 53.D Unit 18 52.C 53.A 54.D 55.B 56.A 57.C 58.C 59.B 60.C 61.D 芸芸芸芸 芸芸芸芸芸芸芸 教教教教 1.教He seemed puzzled about教where Frisbee was. 教He seemed puzzled about教the location of the Frisbee. Where the Frisbee had gone. Where the Frisbee lay. Its losing track of the Frisbee. About where to find the Frisbee. Newton pretended to be puzzled about where the Frisbee was. 2. Newton seemed to like to play tricks on/make fun of people. It seems Newton liked to deceive people. Because its behaviour was deceiving. (Because) Newton pretended to be puzzled. He pretended not to be able to find the Frisbee. 3. Pet owners are willing to share their stories (with others). Pet owners’ willingness to share their stories (with others). Pet owners are eager to share them with others. Every pet owner has a story to share. Pet owners want to tell their pets’ stories. Their owners are eager to share their stories with others. Pet owners want to show their pets are smart. 4. Pets have a mental and emotional life. Human traits could be projected on to animals. Anthropomorphism. Projecting human traits onto animals. 140 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 5. It is the result of mechanical training. It is the result of unintentional punishment punishments and rewards. It is the result of conditioning. They are conditioned to behave in a certain way. They were trained. Training. Unit 1 1. (The) car theft in the U.S./U.S.A./United States. Car/Vehicle/Motor Vehicle theft. Theft/thefts of cars. It’s mainly about the vehicle theft in the U.S.A. The passage is mainly about the vehicle theft. The passage tells us the vehicle theft in the U.S. Vehicle theft is a common phenomenon in the United States. Vehicle theft and how to avoid it. Vehicle stealing and the protection of your car. High volume of vehicle thefts and security systems against theft. Vehicle theft and how to cope with it. 2. Leaving his key in the truck. He left the key in the truck. He should have taken his key with him. He shouldn’t have left the key with him. He didn’t remove the key out of the truck. His carelessness. 3. More than two million cars would be stolen. The vehicle thefts could exceed two million. 4. Disassemble them and sell the parts, or smuggle them abroad. Selling their parts at home or smuggling them abroad. Selling their parts (to individuals) and smuggling them abroad. 5. A device that transmits radio signals. Radio transmitting device. The security system with a device that transmit radio signals. Unit 2 1. They were accustomed to being spoiled and indulged. 141 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 They were used to being spoiled and indulged. They were accustomed to being taken care of by others. They usually left life’s daily work in others’ hand. 2. Because of the twists and the turns of the river. Because of the wilder rapids. Because the river is full of unpredictable twists and turns. Because there are wilder rapids in the river. Because there are unpredictable twists and turns. 3. It was in adversity. It was by no means a major contender. It was suffering from years of adversity. Teamwork was not brought into full play. 4. The lack of teamwork. Teamwork was neglected. Distrust and lack of teamwork. 5. Teamwork. The spirit of teamwork. The spirit to work as a team. Unit 3 1. they want to construct that world in our heads. they want to know more about the world. they want to be well-informed. they want more information. 2. Because they are a source of news and other information. Newspapers are a source of news and information. Because they serve as a source of news and information. Because they provide us with news and information. Because they inform us of news and information. 3. selective. to one’s taste and interest. affected by one’s personal preference. 4. The social context of exposure. 5. hardly planned. unplanned. to a great extend unplanned. 142 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 seldom planned. Unit 4 1. be entertainers. play with them. entertain themselves. be on call as entertainers. act as entertainers. 2. think up things to do, such as projects and games. come up with something to do 3. should learn and develop the actual ability to play. have no condition to develop their ability to play. have to learn those skills which are not innate. 4. lose self-confidence. believe that they are less worthy of admiration and respect. believe that they’re lacking of something. 5. capable and interesting people. Unit 5 47.divorced from reality/ unrealistic 48. The backbreaking labor of the working poor./The bowed backs of the working poor 49.(their)lack of skill /(their)low skill 50.much greater 51.Poor Unit 6 47. as a blessing 48. simplified 49.their house need to be simplified. 50.differen 51.make a list of the unnecessary things before unloading them Unit 7 47.The brilliance of S. Brin and L. Page 48. the academic project 49. By word of mouth 143 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 50.meet their price 51.advertising Unit 8 47.mother’s support network 48. climb the corporate ladder 49. taken seriously 50. in a home office 51. stress 芸芸芸芸 芸芸芸芸 Unit 1 1. N 2. Y 3. NG 5. guaranteed 4. N 6. Internet access 7. two customer satisfaction programs / a customer hotline and a customer call-back program 8. higher prices of their pizzas 9. reckless driving by their drivers 10. the same Unit 2 1. N 2. Y 3. Y 4. NG 5.a trip to the Mir Space Station 6.a space hotel 7.small gravitational 8. the fuel of spacecraft 9.$50,000 10. space travel Unit 3 1. N 2. Y 3. NG 4. Y 5. those things that they love most 6. products 7. his confidence 8. What do I really want to do? 144 教教教教教 [www.koolearn.com ] CET6 教教教教教教教教教教教教教 教教 9. take risk and make sacrifices 10. the lack of action Unit 4 1. A 2.B 3.C 4.B 5.D 6.A 7.D 8. annual utility-bill savings 9. self-denial 10. the market itself/ the market 芸芸芸芸 芸芸芸芸 Passage 1 1. vital 2.sacred 3.commodity 4.result 5.denying 6.sits 7.scenes 8.devastating 9.definitely 10.go 145 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/26/2011 for the course ENGLISH English taught by Professor Shan during the Summer '10 term at Xiamen University.

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