Lec7_UsingTrees - THINK TREES! E=mc2 some clarifications 1....

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THINK TREES! E=mc 2 some clarifications… 1. the outgroup comparison works no matter how you code your character states Character Birds Crocs Lizards Turtles Frog Feathers 1 0 0 0 0 Amniotic egg Y Y Y Y X Parental care present present absent absent absent Four chambered heart B B A A A Outer carapace - - - + - Two skull fenestra ! ! ! " " some clarifications… 2. Tree lengths include all changes on a tree (even homoplasy). But if the tree builder did a good job, you will have little homoplasy on the tree. hair viviparity Tree length = 2 changes lizard platypus kangaroo dog human some clarifications… 2. Tree lengths include all changes on a tree (even homoplasy). But if the tree builder did a good job, you will have little homoplasy on the tree. hair viviparity Tree length = 3 changes lizard platypus kangaroo dog human loss viviparity
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Some clarififcations … 3. Only homologous characters can be categorized as shared and/or derived. Homologous characters: Synapomorphies Symplesiomorphies Autopomorphies Homoplasious characters: No terms! Trees, trees, and more beautiful trees… what to do with them? Phylogenetic trees are depicted many different ways Phylogenetic trees are depicted many different ways
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Phylogenetic trees are depicted many different ways Phylogenetic trees are depicted many different ways Phylogenetic trees are depicted many different ways Phylogenetic trees are depicted many different ways
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Phylogenetic trees are depicted many different ways Phylogenetic trees are depicted many different ways Phylogenetic Trees: What do we do with them? Classification & Nomenclature Molecular Clocks BioGeography Forensics Studies of adaptation Using trees: Classification and Nomenclature Taxonomy: the process of biological classification (categorizing and naming biological diversity)
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Linnaean Classification Hierarchical method of naming Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Even in the best-studied groups (birds and mammals) we are still discovering many unknown species Cercartetus ±s p.± (Pygmy Possum). Western New Guinea,
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This note was uploaded on 12/20/2011 for the course BIOG 1440 taught by Professor Owens during the Spring '10 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Lec7_UsingTrees - THINK TREES! E=mc2 some clarifications 1....

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