Lec19_HWE - !3:,;3$&,<,=>#&,;%)$0 ,...

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!"#$%&'%()*%+ -. ./"0 (&'&(1 &'%()*%+ "02 3+4 #/3+5& "+ 3((&(& 6$&7)&+#"&0 8"./"+ 3 9%9)(3*%+ !3: ;3$& < =>#& ;%)$0 ?@A B&$+%8 ;3(( CD&93$.E&+. %6 F3.)$3( G&0%)$#&0H -I&$ #(300 )+*( +%%+ &3#/ B$"J34 C=#.K A1 LM1 ??1 ?NH E9/OMP#%$+&((K&J) ! Duplication of the entire genome (= polyploidy ) ! Self-fertilization with diploid gametes Genome duplications: polyploidy Closely related windflower (genus Anemone ) species Diploid (2N) tetraploid (4N) Duplication of the entire genome (= polyploidy ) Genome duplications: polyploidy
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!"# %&'()*+,-# (. /0*+1(, Provides the raw material for evolutionary change. Without genetic variation, evolution CAN NOT OCCUR Differences between species have been generated, over billions of years, by molding the variation input by mutation. What causes allele frequencies to change in populations? What causes allele frequencies to change in populations? Mutation Natural Selection Genetic Drift Migration / Gene Flow All of microevolutionary change can be explained by 4 basic processes: What causes allele frequencies to change in a population? Mutation Ultimate source of genetic variation in a population Weak process of change relative to other microevolutionary forces white mutation normal eye Drosophila melanogaster
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“Nature, red in tooth and claw…” Natural Selection Organisms face many obstacles to survival and reproduction. Advantageous alleles will increase in frequency over time in a population. What causes allele frequencies to change in a population? Chance events can alter allele frequencies in populations Combining gametes from one generation to make the next is subject to chance shifts in allele frequency What causes allele frequencies to change in a population? Genetic Drift Gene Flow (Migration) Movement of individuals (and their genes) between differentiated populations can cause change in allele frequencies. What causes allele frequencies to change in a population? What causes allele frequencies to change in populations? Mutation Natural Selection Genetic Drift Migration / Gene Flow All of microevolutionary change can be explained by 4 basic processes:
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Mendelian genetics If we know the genotypes of two parents, we can predict the genotypes of their offspring.
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Lec19_HWE - !3:,;3$&amp;,&lt;,=&gt;#&amp;,;%)$0 ,...

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