# lecture 4 - Logic and Reasoning[4 PHIL 102 31 Aug RECAP...

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Logic and Reasoning [4] PHIL 102 31 Aug [email protected] Office hours: Wed 3-4:50 200A Gregory Hall *Check the Compass website frequently!* Homework barb2right not graded, no deadline barb2right some exercises discussed Friday barb2right your responsibility barb2right troubles? Reach out! RECAP Chapter 1: what CT is good for? How to do it? Chapter 2: what are the obstacles to CT? How can we overcome them? Key terms and concepts From now on: ARGUMENTS ARGUMENTS ARGUMENTS ARGUMENTS Statement (claim): An assertion that something is or is not the case. = a proposition is (expressed by) a sentence that is true or false “Washington is the capital of the USA” “Grass is blue” Not statements (claims, propositions) : “Close the door!” (order) “Ouch” (exclamation) Statement (claim): An assertion that something is or is not the case. Premise : A statement given in support of another statement. Conclusion : A statement that premises are used to support. Argument : A group of statements in which some of them (the premises) are intended to support another of them (the conclusion) fight, quarrel, etc. An argument = a structured set of sentences premises and a conclusion All puppies are cute Bix is a puppy _ Bix is cute 5 Deductive Arguments 1. A deductive argument is intended to provide conclusive support for its conclusion. 2. A deductive argument that succeeds in providing conclusive support for its premise is said to be valid . A valid argument is such that if its premises are true, its conclusion must be true. 3. A deductively valid argument with true premises is said to be sound . Chapter 3: Making Sense of Arguments

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An argument is valid square4 if the conclusion follows from the premises square4 there is no way for the premises to be true and the conclusion to be false square4 taking the premises to hold (even if we realize they are actually false!), the conclusion follows Otherwise it is invalid . 7 An argument barb2right valid = conclusive support Valid: Is there any way for the premises to be true and the conclusion to be false? All men are mortal Socrates is a man _ Socrates is mortal Check!
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