lecture 7 - Experts and Evidence Logic and Reasoning PHIL...

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9/15/2011 1 Logic and Reasoning PHIL 102 [7] 14 Sept 2011 Chapter 4 cont’d Chapter 4: Reasons for Belief and Doubt Experts and Evidence How to use the experts : head2right If a claim conflicts with expert opinion, we have good reason to doubt it. head2right When the experts disagree about a claim, (do) we have good reason to doubt it (?) WHY? Why not side with one expert? Can experts be wrong? YES a. barb2right Expert = authority barb2right Appeal to authority - carefully used - Field X barb2right Field Y Can experts be wrong? YES barb2right Expert = authority barb2right Appeal to authority - carefully used - Field X barb2right Field Y Can experts be wrong? YES b. barb2right Expert = authority barb2right expertise is not enough - expert is biased (Big Pharma) - has incomplete information Are doctors experts? A) Yes B) No
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9/15/2011 2 YES and NO Yes barb2right diagnosing, patient drug dosage, techniques (surgery) No barb2right - discovering new drugs (chemists, biologists, etc.) - testing a drug (statisticians, lab technicians) YES and NO Yes barb2right diagnosing, patient drug dosage, techniques (surgery) No barb2right - discovering new drugs (chemists, biologists, etc.) - testing a drug (statisticians, lab technicians) Experts religious / moral / military? leaders Experts religious / moral / military? leaders
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