chapter 7 venn - 12/10/2011 1 Logic and Reasoning PHIL 102...

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Unformatted text preview: 12/10/2011 1 Logic and Reasoning PHIL 102 [13] 12 Oct 2011 Rest of chapter 7 Deductive reasoning: Categorical logic VENN Diagrams-- -- Venn diagram = graphical representation of the logical relations- Invented by John Venn 1834 - 1923 Four types of categorical statements subject predicate form (shaded region = empty) A-sentences All S are P Four types of categorical statements subject predicate form E-sentences No S are P Four types of categorical statements subject predicate form I-sentences Some S are P Four types of categorical statements subject predicate form O-sentences Some S are not P S P 12/10/2011 2 S P A E O I When do two categorical statements say the same thing? Examples: No S are P = No P are S When do two categorical statements say the same thing? Examples: No S are P = No P are S When do two categorical statements say the same thing? Examples: Some S are P = Some P are S When do two categorical statements say the same thing? Examples: Some S are P = Some P are S When do two categorical statements say the same thing? Examples: All S are P = No S are P 12/10/2011 3 When do two categorical statements say the same thing? Examples: All S are P No S are P When do two categorical statements say the same thing? Examples: All S are P No S are non-P When do two categorical statements say the same thing?...
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chapter 7 venn - 12/10/2011 1 Logic and Reasoning PHIL 102...

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