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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8 Inductive Reasoning ANSWERS TO EXERCISES Exercise 8.1 1. Target group : people in this country; sample : adults in New York and San Francisco; relevant property : being “pro-choice” in the abortion debate. The argument is weak because the sample is not representative. 2. Target group : people in general; sample : people on the street who have been questioned by TV reporters; relevant property : being fed up with celebrities who voice their opinions. The argument is weak. The sample is not representative and is also probably too small. 3. Target group : medical treatments; sample : two cases in which proposed treatments turned out to be ineffective; relevant property : treatments turning out to be worthless. The argument is weak. The sample is too small. 4. Target group : students at this university; sample : first-year students at this university; relevant property : being against such a militant policy. The argument is weak because the sample is both too small and not representative. 5. Target group : American adults; sample : several thousand gun owners; relevant property : being opposed to gun-control laws. The argument is weak. The sample is not representative. 6. Target group : future Buffalo winters; sample : the past twenty Buffalo winters; relevant property : Buffalo’s receiving several feet of snow. The argument is strong. 7. Target group : crimes committed in Chicago; sample : Chicago crimes reported in newspapers; relevant property : crimes committed by racial minorities. The argument is weak because the sample is not likely to be representative. Newspaper reports of crimes might not reflect the actual incidence of crimes. 8. Target group : dentists; sample : dentists who suggest that their patients chew gum; relevant property : recommending Brand X gum. The argument is weak because the sample is not representative. 9. Target group : water in the Charles River; sample : two hundred samples of water taken from many sites all along the Charles River; relevant property : concentrations of toxic chemicals. The argument is strong. 10. Target group : children; sample : children reported by the news media to have been abducted in the past year; relevant property : being abducted. The argument is weak. The sample is not representative (and probably too small) because reports of the news media are not likely to reflect the true incidence of abductions. 11. Target group : university fraternities; sample : at least two fraternities involved in illegal activity; relevant property : illegal activity involving fraternities. The argument is weak. The sample is much too small. 12. Target group : Americans; sample : adults with an annual income of $48,000 to $60,000; relevant property : being happy and satisfied with one’s job. The argument is weak because the sample is not representative. (Middle-income workers are likely to have attitudes toward job satisfaction that are different from those of workers in other income brackets, especially lower ones.) income brackets, especially lower ones....
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This note was uploaded on 12/20/2011 for the course PHIL 102 taught by Professor Rug during the Fall '11 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.
- Fall '11