4Alcohols - Alcohols organic analog of water Hydrogen bond...

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Alcohols organic analog of water Hydrogen bond donor Hydrogen bond acceptor boiling point propane ethanol - 42 o C + 78 o C O-H δ + O δ - .. ..
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Alcohols formula boiling point Solubility in H 2 O (g/100 mL) C 2 H 5 OH 78 miscible C 4 H 9 OH 117 7.9 CH 3 OH 65 miscible H 3 C O H δ + δ - H 3 C O H C 6 H 13 OH 158 0.5 C 8 H 17 OH 194 insoluble CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 H 2 C H 3 C O H δ + δ - O H H δ + δ -
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Alcohols - Nomenclature 1. Longest continuous chain with - OH 2. Root name + “- ol 3. Position of - OH given smallest number 4. Ring of cyclic alcohols numbered from - OH
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Alcohols 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 heptan 3- 4-ethyl- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 diol octane 2,4- 6-methyl- phenol ol
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classes of alcohols 1 o alcohol butanol 2 o alcohol propanol 3 o alcohol propanol 1- 2- 2- 2-methyl- 1 2 3 4
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Alcohols Classify and name : cyclohexanol 1-methyl 1-propanol 2-phenyl-
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Alcohols - reactions dehydration reverse of hydration of alkenes H + step 1 C C H H H OH H H C C H H H H + H 2 O C C H H H OH H H : : H + C C H H H O H H H H : a) electrophile b) nucleophile
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regenerate catalyst step 2 step 3 C C H H H O H H H H : C C H H H H H + O H H : : C C H H H H + H +
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hydration - dehydration + H 2 O H + Q = [alcohol] [alkene] [ H 2 O ] G = -RT ln K/ Q K = 5
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