NotesOnOscilloscopes - NOTES ON OSCILLOSCOPES NOTES ON 1...

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NOTES ON OSCILLOSCOPES
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2 NOTES ON ................................................................................................................................ 1 OSCILLOSCOPES .................................................................................................................... 1 Oscilloscope ............................................................................................................................... 3 Analog and Digital ................................................................................................................. 3 Analog Oscilloscopes ............................................................................................................. 4 Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Principles .................................................................................... 5 Electron Gun ...................................................................................................................... 5 The Deflection System ....................................................................................................... 6 Displaying a Voltage Waveform ........................................................................................ 9 Triggering ......................................................................................................................... 10 Pulse Generator: ............................................................................................................... 12 Sweep Generator .............................................................................................................. 12 X-Y Operation .................................................................................................................. 14 External Triggering .......................................................................................................... 14 Digital Storage Oscilloscopes (DSO) ................................................................................... 15 Measurement Techniques ..................................................................................................... 16 Phase difference: .............................................................................................................. 17 Controls ................................................................................................................................ 20 Display Controls ............................................................................................................... 20 Vertical Controls .............................................................................................................. 20 Position and Volts per Division Settings .......................................................................... 20 Horizontal Controls .......................................................................................................... 21 Input Coupling .................................................................................................................. 22 X-Y Button ....................................................................................................................... 22 DUAL Button ................................................................................................................... 22 Alternate and Chop Buttons ............................................................................................. 23 ADD Button ..................................................................................................................... 23 LEVEL and +/- Buttons ................................................................................................... 25 Appendix .............................................................................................................................. 27
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3 Oscilloscope In many applications, observing certain voltage waveforms in a circuit plays a crucial role in understanding the operation of the circuit. For that purpose several measurement instruments are used like voltmeter, ammeter, or the oscilloscope. An oscilloscope (sometimes abbreviated as “scope”) is a voltage sensing electronic instrument that is used to visualize certain voltage waveforms. An oscilloscope can display the variation of a voltage waveform in time on the oscilloscope’s screen Figure 1. A probe is used to connect the oscilloscope to the circuit. Figure 1 shows an oscilloscope and a probe connected to it. Figure 2. Figure 2 shows a typical probe. Oscilloscope shows the potential difference between the two terminals of the probe. The terminal ending with a hook is usually connected to the node in the circuit whose voltage is of interest. The other terminal is usually (but not always) connected to the ground. The probes are attached to input channels of the oscilloscope. Most oscilloscopes have at least two input channels and each channel can display a waveform on the screen. Multiple channels are useful for comparing waveforms. For example, one can observe the voltage waveforms at the input and the output terminals of a circuit simultaneously, by using a two channel oscilloscope. Analog and Digital Electronic equipments can be divided into two types: analog and digital. Analog equipment works with continuously variable voltages, while digital equipment works with binary numbers (1 and 0’s) that may represent voltage samples. For example, a conventional cassette player is an analog device; a compact disc player is a digital device. Oscilloscopes also come in analog and digital types. An analog oscilloscope works by directly applying a voltage being measured to an electron beam moving across the oscilloscope screen. The voltage deflects the beam up and down proportionally, tracing the waveform on the screen. This gives an immediate picture of the waveform. In contrast, a digital oscilloscope samples the waveform and uses an analog-to-digital converter (or ADC) to + _
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4 convert the voltage being measured into digital information. It then uses this digital information to reconstruct the waveform on the screen.
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