Trial and Appellate CourtsArticle V of the Texas Constitution sets up the Judicial Department. A court that has exclusive jurisdiction is the only court with the authority to decide a particular type of case. Concurrent jurisdiction means that more than one court has authority to try a specific dispute. In that instance, a plaintiff selects the court in which to file the case.Local Trial Courts.The Texas judicial system is complex. Some courts have original jurisdiction, some courts have appellate jurisdiction, and some courts have both original and appellate jurisdiction. Minor trial courts are courts of limited jurisdiction and include municipal courts and justice of the peace courts. These judges alsoserve as magistrates of the state, issuing warrants and conducting hearings. Almost all other judges are also designated magistrates.