IMG_0001_NEW_0013

IMG_0001_NEW_0013 - hand bulb (least disorder) is reduced:...

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Fi l i : F€*'. zr S'1_ , y - .^rJ -- l /) Entropy Entropy: a measure of randomness or disorder Also: measure of spreading of eneigy Order -+ Disorder The entropy of an entire system can never become smaller If entropy changes at all, it must always increase = All the matter in the universe is becoming more disordered "the entropy of the Universe tends to a maximum" (Rudolf Clausius (1854) Inventor of the concept ofentropy) Entropy: Statistical Explanation Chemical systems can occur in different states Nature spontaneously proceeds towards states that have the highest probability of existing. Model system: Gas expansion from filled bulb to evacuated bulb . Why is does gas spontaneously flow into the evacuated bulb? . Why isn't the opposite process spontaneous? 6 Entropy and Probability Q:What happens with increasing numbers of gas molecules? A: Probability of hnding all molecules in left-
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Unformatted text preview: hand bulb (least disorder) is reduced: Rclarirr. Prohahilrrr,'f frnJing All Nurrher of Molecules \lolecules in rhr l.e& lhlb I z 5 t0 ' Ordered states are less likely . Disordered states are more likely = Entropy (disorder) increases spontaneously . 4 molecules of gas Possible microstates Probabili I c (.) d 'a I 'J = ,,?.;s; .?:]---,,i 1*io'-'-;,6F-*' .-e.--r 7 p,.*-. .: ici'::,.i& l-g/*'$')' 15't' /''",tit. '.9,--'.*'' i'.&'.--{ &,, !.9"-'.-\3't . :. ';'. r.:'--. ...*" l'&',: t$tt t9;-"-91 7"Q-7rTt, ',,$-z ***<. .*r' a L C) co cr) O O '**oi, {,'--'i,"} .. t -,<t,., ':"- -1q' Entropy: Statistical Explanation Entropl' of each state -> number of microstates consistent with that state Lorvest entropy state is least probable! = entropy increases spontaneously...
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