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IMG_0001_NEW_0025_001

# IMG_0001_NEW_0025_001 - = Energr no longer in a useful form...

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Temperatu re Dependence . From the two expressions for AG": LG" = -Rf k( K): M{" - ZAS" . We can rewrite this as: K of + Find AIf, A,Se (and AG') from expt. Endothermic Exothermic llT tn Agrees with Le Chdtelier's principle! We can now determine Kat any temperature: h,f&'l--m"It -tl [K,/ R Lr, T,) AS" -R+ g Entropy and the Global Energy Crisis l't Law of Thermodynamics: You can't win: you can only break even Energy is conserved = Global energy supply: ffinite? 2"d La,w of Thermodynamics : You can't break even Disorder of universe increases for any spontaneous process + Concentrated energy (e.g. from oil) dispersed as heat when work is done in any real process (e.g. in combustion engine)
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Unformatted text preview: = Energr no longer in a useful form Result: Free Energy and Useful Work LG: maximum possible useful work obtainable from a chemical reaction LG = rX"t Spontaneous process: LG: energy free to do useful work Non-spontaneous process : LG: energy to make process occur BUT: We have shown: w^a*:wreu All real processes are irreversible, as work is done, thermal energy of surroundings increases LG: L,H . For any real process: ,:XIL*,, < AG Minimum energy that must be wasted as heat flow during the process viavtfl + 0'31 i* >5btgt nl?s-- -+L+-nl ft=t l1'- Ixtob - ') AHorJ .-t.wlfxn Iy=to'! f*-4 ltto' J __L ., n)...
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