12_CellCycle - Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle Lectures by Erin...

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Lectures by Erin Barley Kathleen Fitzpatrick The Cell Cycle Chapter 12
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In unicellular organisms, division of one cell reproduces the entire organism Multicellular organisms depend on cell division for Development from a fertilized cell Growth Repair Cell division is an integral part of the cell cycle , the life of a cell from formation to its own division
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Concept 12.1: Most cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells Most cell division results in daughter cells with identical genetic information, DNA The exception is meiosis, a special type of division that can produce sperm and egg cells
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Cellular Organization of Genetic Material All the DNA in a cell constitutes the cell’s genome A genome can consist of a single DNA molecule (common in prokaryotic cells) or a number of DNA molecules (common in eukaryotic cells) DNA molecules in a cell are packaged into chromosomes
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Eukaryotic chromosomes
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Every eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell nucleus Somatic cells (nonreproductive cells) have two sets of chromosomes - Diploid Gametes (reproductive cells: sperm and eggs) have half as many chromosomes- Haploid
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Figure 12.5-1 Chromosomes Chromosomal DNA molecules Centromere Chromosome arm 1
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Figure 12.5-2 Chromosomes Chromosomal DNA molecules Centromere Chromosome arm Chromosome duplication (including DNA replication) and condensation Sister chromatids 1 2
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Figure 12.5-3 Chromosomes Chromosomal DNA molecules Centromere Chromosome arm Chromosome duplication (including DNA replication) and condensation Sister chromatids Separation of sister chromatids into two chromosomes 1 2 3
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Eukaryotic cell division consists of Mitosis , the division of the genetic material in the nucleus Cytokinesis , the division of the cytoplasm
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Concept 12.2: The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle In 1882, the German anatomist Walther Flemming developed dyes to observe chromosomes during mitosis and cytokinesis INTERPHASE G 1 G 2 S (DNA synthesis) MITOTIC (M) PHASE Cyto kinesis Mitos is
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Figure 12.7 G 2 of Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) Chromatin (duplicated) Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Plasma membrane Early mitotic spindle Aster
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