8-atmospheric_moisture-v6-2011

8-atmospheric_moisture-v6-2011 - Chapter 5 Chapter...

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Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Atmospheric Moisture Atmospheric Moisture
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The importance of moisture Earth is the only planet in the solar system (and perhaps among very few in the universe) with water occurring in the three phases: vapor, liquid and solid. The transition of phases of the water and the release or absorption of latent heat is a key mechanism to generate energy for the movement of the air: Hurricanes are one of the most important examples of conversion of latent heat into kinetic energy (strong winds)
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Release of the latent heat Absorption of latent heat by the water molecules to evaporate Warm Low pressure Low pressure Latent heat warms the atmosphere Pressure decreases near surface Winds increase speed p2 p1
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The movement of water between and within the atmosphere and Earth is referred to as the hydrologic cycle . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dabPFNxo844&feature=related
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The process whereby molecules break free of liquid water is known as evaporation . IR image: WVapor absorbs heat and emits IR The opposite process is condensation , wherein water vapor molecules become a liquid. . Transition of phases Transition of phases
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Icebreak near McMurdo, Antarctica The process whereby ice returns to water is known as melting . The opposite process is known as freezing.
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The change of phase directly from ice to water vapor, without passing into the liquid phase, is called sublimation This is what happens with the ice cubes when they disappeared and you could swear you filled the boxes…
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The reverse process (from water vapor to ice) is called deposition .
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Water vapor and Precipitation Simulation from Global Climate Models CCSM CAM3 Today’s water vapor image in our region: http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/satellite/?wfo=lox
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Consider a hypothetical jar containing pure water with a flat surface and an overlying volume that initially contains no water vapor (a). As evaporation begins, water vapor starts to accumulate above the surface of the liquid. With increasing water vapor content, the condensation rate likewise increases (b). Eventually, the amount of water vapor above the surface is enough for the rates of condensation and evaporation to become equal. The resulting equilibrium state is called saturation (c).
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Evaporation Condens Rate Rate Suppose that circles represent water vapor molecules Saturation for a given Temperature T
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Humidity refers to the amount of water vapor in the air. The saturation vapor pressure is an expression of the maximum water vapor that can exist and depends only on temperature. The ‘fog’ you see when you take a hot shower is actually droplets (like clouds). They result from the saturation of the air with water vapor.
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The part of the total atmospheric pressure due to water vapor is referred to as the vapor pressure . Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures: The total pressure of gas
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This note was uploaded on 12/27/2011 for the course GEOG 110 taught by Professor Leila during the Fall '09 term at UCSB.

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8-atmospheric_moisture-v6-2011 - Chapter 5 Chapter...

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